Purpose: The purpose of the study is to investigate possible risk factors, organisms cultured, and visual acuity outcomes of endophthalmitis associated with microbial keratitis. Methods: Records were reviewed of all patients with both positive corneal and positive intraocular cultures at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute between January 1, 1990, and March 31, 1995. Results: Thirteen (92,9%) of 14 patients identified had documented keratitis before the diagnosis of endophthalmitis was made. Thirteen (92.9%) patients recently had used 1% prednisolone acetate eye drops, 2 (14.3%) received oral prednisone, and 5 (35.7%) were being treated for systemic conditions associated with relative immune dysfunction. Eight (57.1%) patients had a history of ocular surgery, and seven (50.0%) had wound abnormalities. Eight (57.1%) patients lacked an intact posterior capsule, four (28.6%) had a corneal perforation, and three (21.4%) had a history of dry eye. Gram- negative organisms (7), Staphylococcus aureus (3), streptococcal species (2), and fungi (4) were the most frequently isolated organisms. Coagulase- negative staphylococci were not isolated. Six (42.9%) patients achieved a post-treatment visual acuity of 20/200 or better. Three (21.4%) patients underwent enucleation or evisceration. Although not statistically significant, there was an association between appropriate initial antibiotic therapy and improved visual outcomes. Conclusion: Patients in whom endophthalmitis associated with microbial keratitis develops have a frequent history of corticosteroid use, systemic conditions associated with relative immune dysfunction, lack of an intact posterior capsule, dry eye, wound abnormalities, and/or corneal perforation. In general, agents cultured consisted of organisms less frequently reported to be the causative agents in series of postoperative and post-traumatic endophthalmitis. Post-treatment visual outcomes generally were poor.
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