Endocrine manifestations of HIV infection include both pathological changes and disturbances in function. Mechanisms include direct infection of glands by HIV or opportunistic organisms, infiltration by neoplasms, side effects of drugs, and production of humoral factors that may alter metabolism. The adrenal gland is most often affected, but virtually every endocrine system may be involved. Dysfunction is often subtle, with symptoms overlapping those of the HIV infection itself. Endocrine manifestations may be found at any time in the course of the disease, from the asymptomatic HIV- positive stage through full-blown AIDS. Optimal management of these patients may include a careful search for, and appropriate treatment of, associated endocrine abnormalities.
- Human immunodeficiency virus
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