Emerging treatments for depression

Paul E. Holtzheimer, Charles B. Nemeroff

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Established treatments for depression are often effective. However, a significant number of patients show limited or no response. With advancements in the explanation of the underlying neurobiology of depression, several novel therapeutic approaches have been developed. Emerging drug targets include novel monoamine oxidase inhibitors, triple monoamine re-uptake inhibitors, omega-3 fatty acids, melatoninergic agonists and receptor antagonists for corticotropin-releasing factor1, glucocorticoid, substance-P and NMDA. Developments in therapeutic focal brain stimulation include vagus nerve stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnetic seizure therapy and deep brain stimulation. The role of psychotherapy, both as monotherapy and as adjunctive therapy, is an active avenue of investigation. Although data on these treatments are limited, preliminary results are encouraging. A major goal that remains to be achieved is the identification of predictors of response to the various antidepressant treatments that have diverse mechanisms of action.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2323-2339
Number of pages17
JournalExpert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Issue number17
StatePublished - Dec 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Antidepressant treatment
  • Depression
  • Focal brain stimulation
  • Neuropsychopharmacology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)


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