The effect of an arterial filter on visceral emboli was quantified with autologous indium-111 labeled platelets (INPLT) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in Yorkshire pigs. Biodistribution of INPLT was determined in 12 control pigs (30-35 kg, unoperated control [n = 6] and sham operated control [n = 6]). CPB was carried out with (n = 6) and without (n = 6) an arterial filter in 12 pigs at a flow rate of 2.53.5 L/min. Platelets labeled with in- 111 tropolone (650-780 μCi) were injected intravenously 24 hr before CPB. All pigs were systemically heparinized (activated coagulation time > 400 sec); CPB was instituted with a roller pump, an extraluminal blood flow oxygenator (Bentley Univox, 1.8 m2), and an arterial filter (0.25 m2) and continued for 3 hr. Platelet kinetics, pooling, and counts were monitored by a Geiger probe and a Coulter counter. The thrombi in the oxygenator and arterial filter and emboli in viscera and brain were imaged with a gamma camera and measured with an ion chamber and gamma counter. Percentage of INPLT (mean ± SD) in organs, tissues, and components of the circuit in four groups of pigs was calculated. Flow cytometry with antibodies to CD61 (GPIIIa) and CD62P (GMP-140: control) of porcine platelets was carried out with blood samples taken before, during, and after CPB for estimation of circulating platelet aggregates and platelet microparticles. Pulmonary, renal, cardiac, and cerebral emboli in pigs undergoing CPB with and without a filter were similar (p < 0.1). The amount of filter adherent thrombi was small (0.04 ± 0.01%); oxygenator adherent thrombus in both groups was similar (p < 0.1). Emboli were found in the cerebral medulla, hippocampus, and posterior cerebral cortex in both groups. During CPB, the arterial filter functioned minimally as a trap for platelet thrombi detached from the oxygenator and circulating emboli. Flow cytometry of blood demonstrated the shift of equilibria from single platelets to platelet aggregates and microparticles during CPB and their gradual reversal to single platelets after CPB; the loosely adherent emboli disaggregated and further shifted these equilibria to single platelets and smaller aggregates, probably through the action of endogenous nitric oxide and prostacyclin. The emboli were trapped in organs and tissues and microparticles were sequestered by the reticuloendothelial system.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering