Carcinogen-DNA adducts, a marker of DNA damage, are capable of inducing mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, resulting in carcinogenesis. We have shown previously that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adduct levels in prostate cancer cases vary by cellular histology and that higher adduct levels are associated with biochemical recurrence. A nested case-control study was conducted in a historical cohort of 6692 men with histopathologically benign prostate specimens. PAH-DNA adduct levels were determined by immunohistochemistry in benign prostate specimens from 536 prostate cancer case-control pairs (59% White and 41% African American). We estimated the overall and race-stratified risk of subsequent prostate cancer associated with higher adduct levels. Prostate cancer risk for men with elevated adduct levels (defined as greater than control group median) was slightly increased [odds ratio (OR) = 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98-1.67, P = 0.07]. After race stratification, elevated adduct levels were significantly associated with increased risk in African American men (OR = 1.56, CI = 1.00-2.44, *P = 0.05) but not White men (OR = 1.14, CI = 0.82-1.59, P = 0.45). Elevated PAH-DNA adduct levels were significantly associated with 60% increased risk of prostate cancer among cases diagnosed 1-4 years after cohort entry (OR = 1.60, CI = 1.07-2.41) with a greater risk observed in African Americans within the first 4 years of follow-up (OR = 4.71, CI = 1.97-11.26, ***P = 0.0005). Analyses stratified by age or tumor grade revealed no additional significant heterogeneity in risk. Increased prostate cancer risk associated with high PAH-DNA adduct levels in benign prostate was found only in African Americans; risk was greatest within 4 years of follow-up, possibly reflecting a carcinogenic process not yet histologically detectable.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research