Objective: To assess endothelial dysfunction in patients with MS and to investigate whether plasma from patients with MS induces endothelial cell dysfunction in vitro. Background: Endothelial cell dysfunction may contribute to the pathogenesis of MS. Elevations of soluble adhesion molecules intracellular adhesion molecule, vascular cell adhesion molecule, and platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD31) have been reported as markers of blood--brain barrier (BBB) damage in MS, but direct assay of endothelium has been difficult. Endothelial cells release microparticles <∼1.5 μm (EMP) during activation or apoptosis. The authors developed a flow cytometric assay of EMP and studied EMP as markers of endothelial damage in MS. Methods: Platelet-poor plasma (PPP) from 50 patients with MS (30 in exacerbation and 20 in remission) and 48 controls were labeled with fiuorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated anti-CD31 and anti-CD51 (vitronectin receptor) antibodies, and two classes of EMP (CD31+ and CD51+) were assayed by flow cytometry. For in vitro studies, patients' plasma was added to the microvascular endothelial cell (MVEC) culture and release of CD31+ and CD51+ EMP were measured in the supernatant. Results: Plasma from patients in exacerbation had 2.85-fold elevation of CD31+ EMP as compared with healthy controls, returning to near control value during remission. The CD31+ EMP concentration showed a positive association with gadolinium enhancement in patients with MS. In contrast, CD51+ EMP remained elevated in both exacerbation and remission. This suggests that CD31+ EMP is a marker of acute injury, whereas CD51+ EMP reflects chronic injury of endothelium. MS plasma induced release of both CD31+ and CD51+ EMP from MVEC culture in vitro. Conclusion: Endothelial dysfunction is evident during exacerbation of MS, evidenced by shedding of EMP expressing PECAM-1 (CD31). The in vitro data indicate contribution of one or more plasma factors in endothelial dysfunction of MS.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology