Electrospray-Assisted Fabrication of Moisture-Resistant and Highly Stable Perovskite Solar Cells at Ambient Conditions

Shalinee Kavadiya, Dariusz M. Niedzwiedzki, Su Huang, Pratim Biswas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


An electrospray deposition technique to fabricate a perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) layer for highly stable and efficient perovskite solar cells at ambient humidity (30%–50% relative humidity) conditions is demonstrated. A detailed study is conducted to determine the effect of different electrospray parameters on the device performance and to provide a mechanistic explanation of the superior stability of the films. Due to the controlled reactivity that results in the formation of a smooth perovskite film, these cells exhibit stability exceeding 4000 h, in contrast to much lower stability of those fabricated by conventional spin coating methods. Furthermore, the perovskite film deposited by electrospray methods exhibits a self-healing behavior when exposed to moisture. The authors hypothesize the formation of an intermediate metastable phase and smooth morphology of the film as the reason for this enhanced stability. Electrospray is a scalable technique that provides precise control over the amount of material required for deposition, reducing significant material loss that occurs in conventional solution-based methods. Overall, this work shows that stability of perovskite solar cells can be improved by fabrication using a well controlled and optimized electrospray technique, without the use of any additives or cell encapsulants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAdvanced Energy Materials
Issue number18
StatePublished - Sep 20 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • electrospray
  • methylammonium lead iodide
  • moisture-resistant
  • perovskite solar cells
  • stability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Materials Science(all)


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