Electron paramagnetic resonance spin label titration: A novel method to investigate random and site-specific immobilization of enzymes onto polymeric membranes with different properties

D. Allan Butterfield, Joshua Colvin, Jiangling Liu, Jianquan Wang, Leonidas Bachas, Dibakar Bhattacharrya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Scopus citations

Abstract

The immobilization of biological molecules onto polymeric membranes to produce biofunctional membranes is used for selective catalysis, separation, analysis, and artificial organs. Normally, random immobilization of enzymes onto polymeric membranes leads to dramatic reduction in activity due to chemical reactions involved in enzyme immobilization, multiple-point binding, etc., and the extent of activity reduction is a function of membrane hydrophilicity (e.g. activity in cellulosic membrane≫polysulfone membrane). We have used molecular biology to effect site-specific immobilization of enzymes in a manner that orients the active site away from the polymeric membrane surface, thus resulting in higher enzyme activity that approaches that in solution and in increased stability of the enzyme relative to the enzyme in solution. A prediction of this site-specific method of enzyme immobilization, which in this study with subtilisin and organophosphorus hydrolase consists of a fusion tag genetically added to these enzymes and subsequent immobilization via the anti-tag antibody and membrane-bound protein A, is that the active site conformation will more closely resemble that of the enzyme in solution than is the case for random immobilization. This hypothesis was confirmed using a new electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin label active site titration method that determines the amount of spin label bound to the active site of the immobilized enzyme. This value nearly perfectly matched the enzyme activity, and the results suggested: (a) a spectroscopic method for measuring activity and thus the extent of active enzyme immobilization in membrane, which may have advantages in cases where optical methods can not be used due to light scattering interference; (b) higher spin label incorporation (and hence activity) in enzymes that had been site-specifically immobilized versus random immobilization; (c) higher spin label incorporation in enzymes immobilized onto hydrophilic bacterial cellulose membranes versus hydrophobic modified poly(ether)sulfone membranes. These results are discussed with reference to analysis and utilization of biofunctional membranes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)29-36
Number of pages8
JournalAnalytica Chimica Acta
Volume470
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 11 2002
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Biofunctional membranes
  • Electron paramagnetic resonance
  • Enzymes
  • Site-specific immobilization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Spectroscopy

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