Cocaine use during pregnancy is a high-risk indicator for adverse developmental outcomes. Three levels of intervention (center, home, and primary care) were compared in a full service, birth to age 3, early intervention program serving children exposed to cocaine prenatally. Data were collected on 130 children from urban, predominantly poor, primarily minority families. At 36 months, statistically significant, moderate to large intervention effects were found for cognition, receptive and expressive language, and gross motor development. Small effects were observed for behavior problems, and no statistically significant effects were found for fine motor or prosocial skills. Center-based care was most effective for improving language. These findings provide support that the center- and home-based early intervention programs examined in this study had positive effects on children at risk due to prenatal cocaine exposure.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Psychiatry and Mental health