With Turkish words as stimulus terms and corresponding English words as response terms, intentional paired-associate learning was better when the pairs were simply presented once or twice, but incidental learning was better when Ss were required to guess the meaning of the Turkish word before being shown the response term and better when the guess was restricted by a category word (the PG condition) than when no clue was given (the FG condition). Ss could produce more guesses in 8 sec when exposed to a PG item than when exposed to an FG item. Both the superiority of the PG condition over the FG condition and its superiority over double presentation occurred only when S tried to guess the English word (whether in response to instructions or spontaneously) and only when the pair of words exposed after guessing supplied the information that S had been trying to guess. The results are discussed with special reference to the notions of subjective uncertainty and epistemic curiosity.
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