Observed 47 children ranging in age from 13 months to 7 years 9 months receiving injections as part of a regular visit to a pediatric clinic. Twenty-three children were randomly assigned to a condition with parent (mainly mothers) present and 24 to a condition with parent absent. During the medical procedure, the child's reactions were observed via videotape (for later behavioral coding) and physiological recording (to measure heart rates). Following the injection, data were collected on the child's preference of condition (either parent present or parent absent) for future injections. Older children (but not younger ones) showed significantly more behavioral distress when the parent was present. However, the oldest children's preference of condition for future injections was overwhelmingly that of parent present (86%).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Developmental and Educational Psychology