An altered intestinal microbiome during chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with mucosal dysfunction, inflammation, and disease progression. We performed a preclinical evaluation of the safety and efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a potential therapeutic in HIV-infected individuals. Antiretroviral-treated, chronically simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques received antibiotics followed by FMT. The greatest microbiota shift was observed after antibiotic treatment. The bacterial community composition at 2 weeks post-FMT resembled the pre- FMT community structure, although differences in the abundances of minor bacterial populations remained. Immunologically, we observed significant increases in the number of peripheral Th17 and Th22 cells and reduced CD4+ T cell activation in gastrointestinal tissues post-FMT. Importantly, the transplant was well tolerated with no negative clinical side effects. Although this pilot study did not control for the differential contributions of antibiotic treatment and FMT to the observed results, the data suggest that FMT may have beneficial effects that should be further evaluated in larger studies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science