Effects of Breastfeeding, Formula Feeding, and Complementary Feeding on Rapid Weight Gain in the First Year of Life

Charles T. Wood, Whitney P. Witt, Asheley C. Skinner, Hsiang S. Yin, Russell L. Rothman, Lee M. Sanders, Alan M. Delamater, Kori B. Flower, Melissa C. Kay, Eliana M. Perrin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: To determine whether proportion of breast versus formula feeding and timing of complementary food introduction affect the odds of rapid gain in weight status in a diverse sample of infants. Methods: Using data from Greenlight Intervention Study, we analyzed the effects of type of milk feeding (breastfeeding, formula, or mixed feeding) from the 2- to 6-month well visits, and the introduction of complementary foods before 4 months on rapid increase in weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) and weight-for-length z-score (WLZ) before 12 months using multivariable logistic regression models. Results: Of the 865 infants enrolled, 469 had complete data on all variables of interest, and 41% and 33% of those infants had rapid increases in WAZ and WLZ, respectively. Odds of rapid increase in WAZ remained lowest for infants breastfeeding from 2 to 6 months (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.17, 0.69) when compared to infants who were formula-fed. Adjusted for feeding, introduction of complementary foods after 4 months was associated with decreased odds of rapid increase in WLZ (aOR 0.64; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.96). Conclusions: Feeding typified by predominant breastfeeding and delaying introduction of complementary foods after 4 months reduces the odds of rapid increases in WAZ and WLZ in the first year of life.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAcademic Pediatrics
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2020

Keywords

  • breastfeeding
  • formula feeding
  • weight gain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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