A prospective cohort study was conducted among chronic injecting and crack cocaine drug using women. The hypothesis tested was that participation in a standard-plus-innovative intervention was more likely to produce behavior change than participation in a standard intervention. Standardized intervention protocols and corresponding instruments were designed. Data were collected on drug and sex risk behaviors at baseline and six-month follow-up intervals. The level of behavioral change in two intervention arms - standard and a standard-plus-innovative intervention - was measured by composite sex risk and drug risk scores using the generalized estimating equation approach. The results show that on four risk measures the enhanced intervention was significantly associated with positive change in both drug use and sexual behavior: less frequent drug use, less drug use during sex, and more frequent condom use during particular frequencies for specific types of sexual activities. Public health interventions are effective when targeting specific risk behaviors through interventions tailored to prevent HIV and reduce risk behaviors among specific cultural and gender groups.
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