Effect of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia prophylaxis on bacterial illness, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and death in persons with AIDS

Susan E. Buskin, Laura M. Newcomer, Laura A. Koutsky, Thomas M. Hooton, David H. Spach, Sharon G. Hopkins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

28 Scopus citations


To measure the effect of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) in preventing bacterial illness, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), and death in people with AIDS, we conducted a retrospective medical record review of 1078 persons who were observed for 3 years on average who attended nine outpatient facilities in Seattle, Washington between January 1990 and April 1996. We calculated relative risk estimates to measure the protective effect of TMP-SMX on the development of major bacterial illnesses, PCP, and death. Use of TMP-SMX decreased the risk of PCP (relative risk [RR] = 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-0.36) and deaths not attributable to PCP (RR = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.47-0.73). Prevention of major bacterial illnesses of known etiology was of borderline significance (RR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.57-1.05) and became statistically significant with the addition of patients with infections of unknown etiology (RR = 0.77; 95% CI 0.61-0.97). Use of TMP-SMX PCP prophylaxis significantly reduced the risks of death and of PCP and was associated with a trend toward reduced risk of major bacterial infections.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)201-206
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 1999
Externally publishedYes



  • AIDS mortality
  • Bacterial infections
  • HIV infection
  • Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
  • Trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Virology

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