Effect of practice on standardised learning outcomes in simulation-based medical education

William C. McGaghie, S. Barry Issenberg, Emil R. Petrusa, Ross J. Scalese

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

221 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVES: This report synthesises a subset of 31 journal articles on high-fidelity simulation-based medical education containing 32 research studies drawn from a larger qualitative review published previously. These studies were selected because they present adequate data to allow for quantitative synthesis. We hypothesised an association between hours of practice in simulation-based medical education and standardised learning outcomes measured as weighted effect sizes. METHODS: Journal articles were screened using 5 exclusion and inclusion criteria. Response data were extracted and 3 judges independently coded each study. Learning outcomes were standardised using a common metric, the average weighted effect size (AWES), due to the heterogeneity of response measures in individual studies. ANOVA was used to evaluate AWES differences due to hours of practice on a high-fidelity medical simulator cast in 5 categories. The eta squared (η2) statistic was used to assess the association between AWES and simulator practice hours. RESULTS: There is a strong association (η2 = 0.46) between hours of practice on high-fidelity medical simulators and standardised learning outcomes. The association approximates a dose-response relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Hours of high-fidelity simulator practice have a positive, functional relationship with standardised learning outcomes in medical education. More rigorous research methods and more stringent journal editorial policies are needed to advance this field of medical education research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)792-797
Number of pages6
JournalMedical education
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2006


  • Clinical competence/*standards
  • Education, medical, undergraduate/*methods
  • Feedback, psychological
  • Learning
  • Teaching materials
  • Teaching/ *methods
  • United States

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)
  • Education
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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