Effect of Gender on Prognosis in Patients With Takotsubo Syndrome (from a Nationwide Perspective)

Louis T. Vincent, Jelani Grant, Bertrand Ebner, Jennifer Maning, Paul Montana, Odunayo Olorunfemi, Neal I. Olarte, Eduardo de Marchena, Mrudula Munagala, Rosario Colombo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) largely affects postmenopausal women but has been shown to carry increased mortality risk in men. We sought to evaluate nationwide in-hospital outcomes between men and women admitted with TTS to better characterize these disparities. Using the National Inpatient Sample database from 2011 to 2018, we identified a total of 48,300 hospitalizations with the primary diagnosis of TTS. The primary end point was in-hospital all-cause mortality. Secondary end points included in-hospital complications, length of stay, and discharge disposition. Men with TTS accounted for 8.9% of hospitalizations, were younger in age (62.0 ± 15.1 vs 66.8 ± 12.1 years, p <0.001), and were more frequently Black (9.7% vs 5.8%, p <0.001). Nationwide TTS mortality rates were 1.1% overall and may be improving, but remained higher in men than in women (2.2% vs 1.0%, p <0.001). Male gender was associated with increased all-cause mortality (adjusted odds ratios 2.41, 95% confidence interval 1.88 to 3.10, p <0.001), greater length of stay, and discharge complexity. Men carried increased co-morbidity burden associated with increased cardiogenic shock or mortality, including atrial fibrillation, thrombocytopenia, chronic kidney disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Men more frequently developed acute kidney injury, ventricular arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, and respiratory failure. Male gender remains associated with nearly 2.5-fold increase in in-hospital mortality risk. In conclusion, early identification of patients with high-risk co-morbidities and close monitoring for arrhythmias, renal injury, or cardiogenic shock may reduce morbidity and mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Cardiology
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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