Effect of caloric restriction with or without physical activity on body composition and epicardial fat in type 2 diabetic patients: A pilot randomized controlled trial

Josée Leroux-Stewart, Belinda Elisha, Sémah Tagougui, Corinne Suppère, Sophie Bernard, Hortensia Mircescu, Katherine Desjardin, Virginie Messier, Gianluca Iacobellis, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background and aims: There is debate over the independent and combined effects of caloric restriction (CR) and physical activity (PA) on reduction in fat mass and in epicardial fat thickness. We compared the impact of a similar energy deficit prescription by CR or by CR combined with PA on total fat mass, epicardial fat thickness, and cardiometabolic profile in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Methods and results: In this 16-week randomized controlled study, 73 individuals were randomly enrolled to receive: 1) a monthly motivational phone call (Control), 2) a caloric deficit of −700 kilocalories/day (CR), or 3) a caloric deficit of −500 kilocalories/day combined with a PA program of −200 kilocalories/day (CR&PA). Total fat mass, epicardial fat, and cardiometabolic profile were measured at baseline and after 16 weeks. While comparable weight loss occurred in both intervention groups (−3.9 ± 3.5 kg [CR], −5.1 ± 4.7 kg [CR&PA], −0.2 ± 2.9 kg [Control]), changes in total fat mass were significantly different between all groups (−2.4 ± 2.9 kg [CR], −4.5 ± 3.4 kg [CR&PA], +0.1 ± 2.1 kg [Control]; p < 0.05) as well as epicardial fat thickness (−0.4 ± 1.6 mm [CR], −1.4 ± 1.4 mm [CR&PA], +1.1 ± 1.3 mm [Control]; p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in trends for cardiometabolic parameters improvement between groups. Conclusions: For a similar energy deficit prescription and comparable weight loss, the combination of CR&PA provides a greater reduction in fat mass and epicardial fat thickness than CR alone in individuals with comparable weight loss and with a similar energy deficit prescription. These results, however, do not translate into significant improvements in cardiometabolic profiles. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01186952.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)921-929
Number of pages9
JournalNutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
Volume31
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 10 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular risk factors
  • Energy restriction
  • Epicardial fat thickness
  • Structured exercise
  • Total fat mass
  • Type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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