Echocardiography of right ventriculoarterial coupling combined with cardiopulmonary exercise testing to predict outcome in heart failure

Marco Guazzi, Robert Naeije, Ross Arena, Ugo Corrà, Stefano Ghio, Paul Forfia, Andrea Rossi, Lawrence P Cahalin, Francesco Bandera, Pierluigi Temporelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

49 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension, which is related to right ventricular (RV) failure, indicates a poor prognosis in heart failure (HF). Increased ventilatory response and exercise oscillatory ventilation (EOV) also have a negative impact. We hypothesized that the severity classification of HF and risk prediction could be improved by combining functional capacity with cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and RV-pulmonary circulation coupling, as evaluated by the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE)-pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) relationship. METHODS: Four hundred fifty-nine patients with HF were assessed with Doppler echocardiography and CPET and were tracked for outcome. The subjects were followed for major cardiac events (cardiac mortality, left ventricular assist device implant, or heart transplant). Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed with TAPSE and PASP as individual measures that were then combined into a ratio form. RESULTS: The TAPSE/PASP ratio (TAPSE/PASP) was the strongest predictor, whereas the New York Heart Association classification and EOV added predictive value. A four-quadrant group prediction risk was created based on TAPSE (< 16 mm or ≥ 16 mm) vs PASP (< 40 mm Hg or ≥ 40 mm Hg) thresholds and the CPET variables distribution as follows: group A (TAPSE > 16 mm and PASP < 40 mm Hg) presented the lowest risk (hazard ratio, 0.17) and best ventilation; group B exhibited a low risk (hazard ratio, 0.88) with depressed TAPSE (< 16 mm) and normal PASP, a preserved peak oxygen consumption (Vo<inf>2</inf>), but high ventilation. Group C had an increased risk (hazard ratio, 1.3; TAPSE ≥ 16 mm, PASP ≥ 40 mm Hg), a reduced peak Vo<inf>2</inf>, and a high EOV prevalence. Group D had the highest risk (hazard ratio, 5.6), the worse RV-pulmonary pressure coupling (TAPSE < 16 and PASP ≥ 40 mm Hg), the lowest peak Vo<inf>2</inf>, and the highest EOV rate. CONCLUSIONS: TAPSE/PASP, combined with exercise ventilation, provides relevant clinical and prognostic insights into HF. A low TAPSE/PASP with EOV identifies patients at a particularly high risk of cardiac events.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)226-234
Number of pages9
JournalChest
Volume148
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2015

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Pulmonary Artery
Echocardiography
Heart Failure
Ventilation
Exercise
Blood Pressure
Odds Ratio
Heart-Assist Devices
Pulmonary Circulation
Doppler Echocardiography
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Ventricular Pressure
Pulmonary Hypertension
Transplants
Lung
Mortality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Echocardiography of right ventriculoarterial coupling combined with cardiopulmonary exercise testing to predict outcome in heart failure. / Guazzi, Marco; Naeije, Robert; Arena, Ross; Corrà, Ugo; Ghio, Stefano; Forfia, Paul; Rossi, Andrea; Cahalin, Lawrence P; Bandera, Francesco; Temporelli, Pierluigi.

In: Chest, Vol. 148, No. 1, 01.07.2015, p. 226-234.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Guazzi, M, Naeije, R, Arena, R, Corrà, U, Ghio, S, Forfia, P, Rossi, A, Cahalin, LP, Bandera, F & Temporelli, P 2015, 'Echocardiography of right ventriculoarterial coupling combined with cardiopulmonary exercise testing to predict outcome in heart failure', Chest, vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 226-234. https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.14-2065
Guazzi, Marco ; Naeije, Robert ; Arena, Ross ; Corrà, Ugo ; Ghio, Stefano ; Forfia, Paul ; Rossi, Andrea ; Cahalin, Lawrence P ; Bandera, Francesco ; Temporelli, Pierluigi. / Echocardiography of right ventriculoarterial coupling combined with cardiopulmonary exercise testing to predict outcome in heart failure. In: Chest. 2015 ; Vol. 148, No. 1. pp. 226-234.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension, which is related to right ventricular (RV) failure, indicates a poor prognosis in heart failure (HF). Increased ventilatory response and exercise oscillatory ventilation (EOV) also have a negative impact. We hypothesized that the severity classification of HF and risk prediction could be improved by combining functional capacity with cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and RV-pulmonary circulation coupling, as evaluated by the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE)-pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) relationship. METHODS: Four hundred fifty-nine patients with HF were assessed with Doppler echocardiography and CPET and were tracked for outcome. The subjects were followed for major cardiac events (cardiac mortality, left ventricular assist device implant, or heart transplant). Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed with TAPSE and PASP as individual measures that were then combined into a ratio form. RESULTS: The TAPSE/PASP ratio (TAPSE/PASP) was the strongest predictor, whereas the New York Heart Association classification and EOV added predictive value. A four-quadrant group prediction risk was created based on TAPSE (< 16 mm or ≥ 16 mm) vs PASP (< 40 mm Hg or ≥ 40 mm Hg) thresholds and the CPET variables distribution as follows: group A (TAPSE > 16 mm and PASP < 40 mm Hg) presented the lowest risk (hazard ratio, 0.17) and best ventilation; group B exhibited a low risk (hazard ratio, 0.88) with depressed TAPSE (< 16 mm) and normal PASP, a preserved peak oxygen consumption (Vo2), but high ventilation. Group C had an increased risk (hazard ratio, 1.3; TAPSE ≥ 16 mm, PASP ≥ 40 mm Hg), a reduced peak Vo2, and a high EOV prevalence. Group D had the highest risk (hazard ratio, 5.6), the worse RV-pulmonary pressure coupling (TAPSE < 16 and PASP ≥ 40 mm Hg), the lowest peak Vo2, and the highest EOV rate. CONCLUSIONS: TAPSE/PASP, combined with exercise ventilation, provides relevant clinical and prognostic insights into HF. A low TAPSE/PASP with EOV identifies patients at a particularly high risk of cardiac events.",
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AU - Guazzi, Marco

AU - Naeije, Robert

AU - Arena, Ross

AU - Corrà, Ugo

AU - Ghio, Stefano

AU - Forfia, Paul

AU - Rossi, Andrea

AU - Cahalin, Lawrence P

AU - Bandera, Francesco

AU - Temporelli, Pierluigi

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N2 - BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension, which is related to right ventricular (RV) failure, indicates a poor prognosis in heart failure (HF). Increased ventilatory response and exercise oscillatory ventilation (EOV) also have a negative impact. We hypothesized that the severity classification of HF and risk prediction could be improved by combining functional capacity with cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and RV-pulmonary circulation coupling, as evaluated by the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE)-pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) relationship. METHODS: Four hundred fifty-nine patients with HF were assessed with Doppler echocardiography and CPET and were tracked for outcome. The subjects were followed for major cardiac events (cardiac mortality, left ventricular assist device implant, or heart transplant). Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed with TAPSE and PASP as individual measures that were then combined into a ratio form. RESULTS: The TAPSE/PASP ratio (TAPSE/PASP) was the strongest predictor, whereas the New York Heart Association classification and EOV added predictive value. A four-quadrant group prediction risk was created based on TAPSE (< 16 mm or ≥ 16 mm) vs PASP (< 40 mm Hg or ≥ 40 mm Hg) thresholds and the CPET variables distribution as follows: group A (TAPSE > 16 mm and PASP < 40 mm Hg) presented the lowest risk (hazard ratio, 0.17) and best ventilation; group B exhibited a low risk (hazard ratio, 0.88) with depressed TAPSE (< 16 mm) and normal PASP, a preserved peak oxygen consumption (Vo2), but high ventilation. Group C had an increased risk (hazard ratio, 1.3; TAPSE ≥ 16 mm, PASP ≥ 40 mm Hg), a reduced peak Vo2, and a high EOV prevalence. Group D had the highest risk (hazard ratio, 5.6), the worse RV-pulmonary pressure coupling (TAPSE < 16 and PASP ≥ 40 mm Hg), the lowest peak Vo2, and the highest EOV rate. CONCLUSIONS: TAPSE/PASP, combined with exercise ventilation, provides relevant clinical and prognostic insights into HF. A low TAPSE/PASP with EOV identifies patients at a particularly high risk of cardiac events.

AB - BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension, which is related to right ventricular (RV) failure, indicates a poor prognosis in heart failure (HF). Increased ventilatory response and exercise oscillatory ventilation (EOV) also have a negative impact. We hypothesized that the severity classification of HF and risk prediction could be improved by combining functional capacity with cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and RV-pulmonary circulation coupling, as evaluated by the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE)-pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) relationship. METHODS: Four hundred fifty-nine patients with HF were assessed with Doppler echocardiography and CPET and were tracked for outcome. The subjects were followed for major cardiac events (cardiac mortality, left ventricular assist device implant, or heart transplant). Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed with TAPSE and PASP as individual measures that were then combined into a ratio form. RESULTS: The TAPSE/PASP ratio (TAPSE/PASP) was the strongest predictor, whereas the New York Heart Association classification and EOV added predictive value. A four-quadrant group prediction risk was created based on TAPSE (< 16 mm or ≥ 16 mm) vs PASP (< 40 mm Hg or ≥ 40 mm Hg) thresholds and the CPET variables distribution as follows: group A (TAPSE > 16 mm and PASP < 40 mm Hg) presented the lowest risk (hazard ratio, 0.17) and best ventilation; group B exhibited a low risk (hazard ratio, 0.88) with depressed TAPSE (< 16 mm) and normal PASP, a preserved peak oxygen consumption (Vo2), but high ventilation. Group C had an increased risk (hazard ratio, 1.3; TAPSE ≥ 16 mm, PASP ≥ 40 mm Hg), a reduced peak Vo2, and a high EOV prevalence. Group D had the highest risk (hazard ratio, 5.6), the worse RV-pulmonary pressure coupling (TAPSE < 16 and PASP ≥ 40 mm Hg), the lowest peak Vo2, and the highest EOV rate. CONCLUSIONS: TAPSE/PASP, combined with exercise ventilation, provides relevant clinical and prognostic insights into HF. A low TAPSE/PASP with EOV identifies patients at a particularly high risk of cardiac events.

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