Early androgen ablation for stage D1 (N1 to N3, M0) prostate cancer: Prognostic variables and outcome

G. K. Zagars, M. E. Sands, A. Pollack, A. C. Von Eschenbach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

62 Scopus citations


To elucidate the outcome for patients with stage D1 (N1 to N3, M0) prostate cancer we reviewed 179 patients with lymphadenectomy proved pelvic nodal metastases who underwent immediate androgen ablation as the only initial treatment. With a median followup of 43 months, the 5 and 8 year actuarial rates of freedom from disease progression were 55% and 25%, respectively, and the median interval to disease progression was 67 months. The 5 and 8-year survival rates were 85% and 57%, respectively. Median survival after disease progression was 36 months. Local and distant disease progression was equally important. At 5 and 8 years the incidence of local progression was 32% and 51%, respectively, while metastatic rates at the same intervals were 22% and 44%, respectively. Multivariate regression revealed that tumor grade and transurethral resection in preoperative stage C disease correlated with disease progression. Pretreatment prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels were not predictive of outcome. The fact that transurethral resection predicted for local as well as distant failure suggests that the procedure selects for rather than aggravates adverse disease. Posttreatment PSA levels were a sensitive index of response to treatment and of subsequent outcome. All patients who failed to achieve undetectable PSA levels had relapse by 8 years, whereas those whose levels became undetectable experienced only a 5% incidence of disease progression. These data show that androgen ablation alone is not curative for node positive disease but is associated with significant disease control and good short-term (5-year) survival. The primary tumor is an important source of androgen insensitive cells and comprehensive treatment strategies for this stage of disease require attention to the primary tumor as well as microscopic metastases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1330-1333
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1994
Externally publishedYes


  • androgens
  • lymph nodes
  • neoplasm metastasis
  • prostatic neoplasms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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