E-S-QUAL a multiple-item scale for assessing electronic service quality

A. Parasuraman, Valarie A. Zeithaml, Arvind Malhotra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1952 Scopus citations


Using the means-end framework as a theoretical foundation, this article conceptualizes, constructs, refines, and tests a multiple-item scale (E-S-QUAL) for measuring the service quality delivered by Web sites on which customers shop online. Two stages of empirical data collection revealed that two different scales were necessary for capturing electronic service quality. The basic E-S-QUAL scale developed in the research is a 22-item scale of four dimensions: efficiency, fulfillment, system availability, and privacy. The second scale, E-RecS-QUAL, is salient only to customers who had nonroutine encounters with the sites and contains 11 items in three dimensions: responsiveness, compensation, and contact. Both scales demonstrate good psychometric properties based on findings from a variety of reliability and validity tests and build on the research already conducted on the topic. Directions for further research on electronic service quality are offered. Managerial implications stemming from the empirical findings about E-S-QUAL are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)213-233
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Service Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 2005


  • Customer service
  • E-service quality
  • Online stores
  • Scale development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Information Systems
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management


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