Dynamics of carbonate chemistry, production, and calcification of the Florida Reef Tract (2009–2010): Evidence for seasonal dissolution

Nancy Muehllehner, Chris Langdon, Alyson Venti, David Kadko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


Ocean acidification is projected to lower the Ωar of reefal waters by 0.3–0.4 units by the end of century, making it more difficult for calcifying organisms to secrete calcium carbonate while at the same time making the environment more favorable for abiotic and biotic dissolution of the reefal framework. There is great interest in being able to project the point in time when coral reefs will cross the tipping point between being net depositional to net erosional in terms of their carbonate budgets. Periodic in situ assessments of the balance between carbonate production and dissolution that spans seasonal time scales may prove useful in monitoring and formulating projections of the impact of ocean acidification on reefal carbonate production. This study represents the first broad-scale geochemical survey of the rates of net community production (NCP) and net community calcification (NCC) across the Florida Reef Tract (FRT). Surveys were performed at approximately quarterly intervals in 2009–2010 across seven onshore-offshore transects spanning the upper, middle, and lower Florida Keys. Averaged across the FRT, the rates of NCP and NCC were positive during the spring/summer at 62 ± 7 and 17 ± 2 mmol m−2 d−1, respectively, and negative during the fall/winter at −33 ± 6 and −7 ± 2 mmol m−2 d−1. The most significant finding of the study was that the northernmost reef is already net erosional (−1.1 ± 0.4 kg CaCO3 m−2 yr−1) and midreefs to the south were net depositional on an annual basis (0.4 ± 0.1 kg CaCO3 m−2 yr−1) but erosional during the fall and winter. Only the two southernmost reefs were net depositional year-round. These results indicate that parts of the FRT have already crossed the tipping point for carbonate production and other parts are getting close.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)661-688
Number of pages28
JournalGlobal Biogeochemical Cycles
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2016


  • aragonite saturation state
  • coral reef calcification
  • dissolution
  • ocean acidification
  • photosynthesis
  • primary production

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Atmospheric Science


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