Dual-process theory and intellectual virtue: A role for self-confidence

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This chapter focuses on errors produced by three different kinds of type 1 processing: The representativeness heuristic, the availability heuristic and cognitive biases, especially confirmation bias. It argues that adopting intellectual virtues, such as intellectual humility, intellectual self-vigilance and intellectual gregariousness, help minimize the errors produced by such type 1 processing. The chapter argues that intellectual confidence, pride, and optimism are required in order to avoid the errors introduced when type 2 processing interferes with the exercise of reliable type 1 heuristics. It examines several strategies for acquiring these intellectual virtues, including new habit formation and attentional bias techniques. The dual-processing theory of cognitive processing states that there are two distinct ways in which we make decisions in daily life. Intellectual diligence/perseverance, intellectual self-vigilance/open-mindedness and intellectual humility stand in opposition to their vice counterparts: intellectual laziness, intellectual closed-mindedness and intellectual arrogance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThe Routledge Handbook of Virtue Epistemology
PublisherTaylor and Francis
Number of pages16
ISBN (Electronic)9781317495291
ISBN (Print)9781138890206
StatePublished - Sep 4 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities(all)


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