Dual infection of the central nervous system caused by Cryptococcus and Toxoplasma in a patient with AIDS: a case report and literature review

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3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Dual infection of the central nervous system secondary to Cryptococcus and Toxoplasma is very uncommon, even in the setting of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report the case of a 52-year-old patient who was admitted with multiple cranial nerve deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging showed supratentorial and infratentorial enhancing lesions. He was newly diagnosed with HIV infection with a CD4 count of 59 cells/uL and HIV viral load of 299,619 copies/mL. Diagnosis of Cryptococcus meningitis was made by Cryptococcal antigen in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The high clinical suspicion for Toxoplasmosis prompted an early empiric treatment for this condition. The diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis was later confirmed by PCR in CSF. Despite an adequate treatment for these two pathologies, his condition deteriorated and eventually expired. We reviewed the English language literature for cases of Cryptococcus and Toxoplasma co-infection of the central nervous system in patients with AIDS. To our knowledge, our patient is the third case of simultaneous infection described in the literature. Clinicians must be aware that focal brain lesions in patients with cryptococcal meningitis should prompt a full evaluation to search for concomitant pathologies of which Toxoplasmosis is the most important. Our case illustrates the utility of PCR in CSF for an early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, reserving brain biopsy for cases of anti-toxoplasma therapy failure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)448-452
Number of pages5
JournalActa Clinica Belgica: International Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Medicine
Volume73
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2 2018

Keywords

  • AIDS
  • central nervous system
  • Cryptococcus
  • HIV
  • Toxoplasmosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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