Dry eye symptoms align more closely to non-ocular conditions than to tear film parameters

Anat Galor, Elizabeth Felix, William J Feuer, Nabeel Shalabi, Eden R Martin, Todd P. Margolis, Konstantinos D. Sarantopoulos, Roy C Levitt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Objective To evaluate the relationship between dry eye symptoms, non-ocular conditions and tear film parameters. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants/ setting: The study population consisted of patients who were seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic. Patients filled out standardised questionnaires assessing dry eye symptoms (dry eye questionnaire 5 (DEQ5) and ocular surface disease index (OSDI)), non-ocular pain, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and also underwent measurement of tear film parameters. Main outcome measures: Correlations between dry eye symptoms and non-ocular conditions as compared with tear film parameters. Results 136 patients with a mean age of 65 (SD 11) years participated in the study. All correlations between the dry eye questionnaire scores (DEQ5 and OSDI) and (A) self-reported non-ocular pain measures (numerical rating scale and pain history), (B) depression and (C) PTSD were significant and moderate in strength (Pearson's coefficient 0.24 to 0.60, p<0.01 for all). All correlations between the dry eye questionnaires and tear film measures were weak (Pearson's coefficient -0.10 to 0.18) and most were not significant. Multivariable linear regression analyses revealed that PTSD and non-ocular pain more closely associated with dry eye symptoms than did tear film parameters. Specifically, non-ocular pain and PTSD accounted for approximately 36% of the variability in DEQ5 scores (R=0.60) and approximately 40% of variability in OSDI scores (R=0.64). Of note, none of the tear parameters remained significantly associated with dry eye symptoms in either model. Conclusions Dry eye symptoms more closely align to non-ocular pain, depression and PTSD than to tear film parameters.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1126-1129
Number of pages4
JournalBritish Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume99
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2015

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Tears
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders
Pain
Eye Diseases
Depression
Veterans
Surveys and Questionnaires
Linear Models
Cross-Sectional Studies
Regression Analysis
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Cite this

Dry eye symptoms align more closely to non-ocular conditions than to tear film parameters. / Galor, Anat; Felix, Elizabeth; Feuer, William J; Shalabi, Nabeel; Martin, Eden R; Margolis, Todd P.; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D.; Levitt, Roy C.

In: British Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 99, No. 8, 01.08.2015, p. 1126-1129.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Objective To evaluate the relationship between dry eye symptoms, non-ocular conditions and tear film parameters. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants/ setting: The study population consisted of patients who were seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic. Patients filled out standardised questionnaires assessing dry eye symptoms (dry eye questionnaire 5 (DEQ5) and ocular surface disease index (OSDI)), non-ocular pain, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and also underwent measurement of tear film parameters. Main outcome measures: Correlations between dry eye symptoms and non-ocular conditions as compared with tear film parameters. Results 136 patients with a mean age of 65 (SD 11) years participated in the study. All correlations between the dry eye questionnaire scores (DEQ5 and OSDI) and (A) self-reported non-ocular pain measures (numerical rating scale and pain history), (B) depression and (C) PTSD were significant and moderate in strength (Pearson's coefficient 0.24 to 0.60, p<0.01 for all). All correlations between the dry eye questionnaires and tear film measures were weak (Pearson's coefficient -0.10 to 0.18) and most were not significant. Multivariable linear regression analyses revealed that PTSD and non-ocular pain more closely associated with dry eye symptoms than did tear film parameters. Specifically, non-ocular pain and PTSD accounted for approximately 36{\%} of the variability in DEQ5 scores (R=0.60) and approximately 40{\%} of variability in OSDI scores (R=0.64). Of note, none of the tear parameters remained significantly associated with dry eye symptoms in either model. Conclusions Dry eye symptoms more closely align to non-ocular pain, depression and PTSD than to tear film parameters.",
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AU - Feuer, William J

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N2 - Objective To evaluate the relationship between dry eye symptoms, non-ocular conditions and tear film parameters. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants/ setting: The study population consisted of patients who were seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic. Patients filled out standardised questionnaires assessing dry eye symptoms (dry eye questionnaire 5 (DEQ5) and ocular surface disease index (OSDI)), non-ocular pain, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and also underwent measurement of tear film parameters. Main outcome measures: Correlations between dry eye symptoms and non-ocular conditions as compared with tear film parameters. Results 136 patients with a mean age of 65 (SD 11) years participated in the study. All correlations between the dry eye questionnaire scores (DEQ5 and OSDI) and (A) self-reported non-ocular pain measures (numerical rating scale and pain history), (B) depression and (C) PTSD were significant and moderate in strength (Pearson's coefficient 0.24 to 0.60, p<0.01 for all). All correlations between the dry eye questionnaires and tear film measures were weak (Pearson's coefficient -0.10 to 0.18) and most were not significant. Multivariable linear regression analyses revealed that PTSD and non-ocular pain more closely associated with dry eye symptoms than did tear film parameters. Specifically, non-ocular pain and PTSD accounted for approximately 36% of the variability in DEQ5 scores (R=0.60) and approximately 40% of variability in OSDI scores (R=0.64). Of note, none of the tear parameters remained significantly associated with dry eye symptoms in either model. Conclusions Dry eye symptoms more closely align to non-ocular pain, depression and PTSD than to tear film parameters.

AB - Objective To evaluate the relationship between dry eye symptoms, non-ocular conditions and tear film parameters. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants/ setting: The study population consisted of patients who were seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic. Patients filled out standardised questionnaires assessing dry eye symptoms (dry eye questionnaire 5 (DEQ5) and ocular surface disease index (OSDI)), non-ocular pain, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and also underwent measurement of tear film parameters. Main outcome measures: Correlations between dry eye symptoms and non-ocular conditions as compared with tear film parameters. Results 136 patients with a mean age of 65 (SD 11) years participated in the study. All correlations between the dry eye questionnaire scores (DEQ5 and OSDI) and (A) self-reported non-ocular pain measures (numerical rating scale and pain history), (B) depression and (C) PTSD were significant and moderate in strength (Pearson's coefficient 0.24 to 0.60, p<0.01 for all). All correlations between the dry eye questionnaires and tear film measures were weak (Pearson's coefficient -0.10 to 0.18) and most were not significant. Multivariable linear regression analyses revealed that PTSD and non-ocular pain more closely associated with dry eye symptoms than did tear film parameters. Specifically, non-ocular pain and PTSD accounted for approximately 36% of the variability in DEQ5 scores (R=0.60) and approximately 40% of variability in OSDI scores (R=0.64). Of note, none of the tear parameters remained significantly associated with dry eye symptoms in either model. Conclusions Dry eye symptoms more closely align to non-ocular pain, depression and PTSD than to tear film parameters.

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