Drug insight: Clinical use of agonists and antagonists of luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone

Jörg B. Engel, Andrew V Schally

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

121 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This article reviews the clinical uses of agonists and antagonists of luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), also known as gonadotropin- releasing hormone. In particular, the state of the art treatment of breast, ovarian and prostate cancer, reproductive disorders, uterine leiomyoma, endometriosis and benign prostatic hypertrophy is reported. Clinical applications of LHRH agonists are based on gradual downregulation of pituitary receptors for LHRH, which leads to inhibition of the secretion of gonadotropins and sex steroids. LHRH antagonists immediately block pituitary LHRH receptors and, therefore, achieve rapid therapeutic effects. LHRH agonists and antagonists can be used to treat uterine leiomyoma and endometriosis; furthermore, both types of LHRH analogs are used to block the secretion of endogenous gonadotropins in ovarian-stimulation programs for assisted reproduction. The preferred primary treatment of patients with advanced, androgen-dependent prostate cancer is based on the periodic administration of depot preparations of LHRH agonists; these agonists can be likewise used to treat estrogen-sensitive breast cancer in premenopausal women. LHRH antagonists have been successfully used to treat prostate cancer and benign prostatic hypertrophy. Since receptors for LHRH are present on a variety of human tumors, (notably breast, prostate, ovarian, endometrial and renal cancers), cytotoxic therapy that targets these tumors with hybrid molecules of LHRH might be possible in the near future. Analogs of LHRH are now a well-established means of treating sex-steroid-dependent, benign and malignant disorders.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)157-167
Number of pages11
JournalNature Clinical Practice Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume3
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2007

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Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Hormone Antagonists
Prostatic Neoplasms
LHRH Receptors
Prostatic Hyperplasia
Leiomyoma
Endometriosis
Breast Neoplasms
Gonadotropins
Ovarian Neoplasms
Pituitary Hormone-Regulating Hormone Receptors
Steroids
Delayed-Action Preparations
Ovulation Induction
Kidney Neoplasms
Therapeutic Uses
Endometrial Neoplasms
Androgens
Reproduction

Keywords

  • Cancer
  • LHRH agonists
  • LHRH antagonists
  • Reproductive medicine
  • Uterine leiomyoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

Cite this

Drug insight : Clinical use of agonists and antagonists of luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone. / Engel, Jörg B.; Schally, Andrew V.

In: Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 3, No. 2, 01.02.2007, p. 157-167.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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