Does retrograde warm blood cardioplegia provide equal protection to both ventricles? A magnetic resonance spectroscopy study in pigs

Jian Ye, Jiankang Sun, Jie Shen, Lori Gregorash, Randy Summers, Tomás A. Salerno, Roxanne Deslauriers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Background: The degree of protection provided to the right ventricle during retrograde continuous normothermic blood cardioplegia (RCNBC) remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine whether RCNBC is able to provide 'adequate' nutritive flow to both ventricles to prevent ischemic metabolism in normal swine hearts. Localized 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to monitor the changes in energy metabolism and intracellular pH (pHi) in each ventricle separately. Methods and Results: Isolated normal swine hearts received 20 minutes of antegrade continuous normothermic blood cardioplegia (ACNBC) for collection of control (baseline) data, followed by 20 minutes of RCNBC. This protocol was repeated four times in five hearts and twice in two hearts. Perfusion pressure was maintained between 70 to 85 and 38 to 43 mm Hg during ACNBC and RCNBC, respectively. pHi, creatine phosphate (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), and ATP were measured continuously in each ventricle during ACNBC and RCNBC, using localized 31P MRS with two surface coils. RCNBC resulted in a significant increase in Pi (LV 222% and RV 244% of the baseline levels, respectively) and a decrease in PCr (left ventricle [LV] to 68% and right ventricle [RV] to 31% of the baseline levels, respectively) in both ventricles relative to ACNBC. The PCr level was significantly lower in the RV than in the LV (31% versus 685, P>.001) during RCNBC. In one series of experiments (n=5) where ACNBC and RCNBC were alternated every 20 minutes (ACNBC, RCNBC, ACNBC, RCNBC, ACNBC) for a total of 100 minutes. Pi and PCr recovered completely. A continuous and significant decrease in ATP was observed in the RV, and no recovery of ATP was found when switching from RCNBC to ACNBC. No significant decrease in AT was observed in the LV. pHi remained unchanged in both ventricles during alternate ACNBC and RCNBC. Conclusions: Energy metabolism in the RV is less well preserved than in the LV during RCNBC. A combination of ACNBC and RCNBC seems to provide good cardiac protection as measured by the recovery of cardiac energetics and pHi.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)II210-II215
Issue number9 SUPPL.
StatePublished - Nov 4 1997
Externally publishedYes


  • Cardioplegia
  • Heart arrest
  • Magnetic resonance spectroscopy
  • Metabolism
  • Ventricles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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