Background: To use a population-based registry to evaluate the effect of chemotherapy or radiation on survival for patients undergoing curative-intent surgery for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or stomach. Methods: A linked data set between the Florida Cancer Data System and the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration from 1998 to 2003 was queried. Results: Overall, 3,378 patients underwent surgical extirpation with curative intent, 636 patients had esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), and 2,742 patients had gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC). Outcomes were adjusted for patient comorbidities and hospital teaching status. Overall, no benefit was observed for adjuvant therapies for EAC patients. A small improvement in survival was observed with adjuvant therapies for GAC. For localized EAC or GAC there was no additional survival benefit associated with adjuvant therapies. For patients with regional EAC, chemotherapy (20.0 vs. 13.0 months, P < .001) and radiation (18.6 vs. 13.5 months, P = .007) were associated with a statistically significant survival benefit. In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of improved survival for regional EAC include chemotherapy (hazard ratio [HR] .535, P < .001) and radiotherapy (HR .656, P = .01). For GAC, patients with regional disease showed an improved median survival with chemotherapy (21.1 vs. 11.2 months, P < .001) and radiotherapy (22.6 vs. 12.3 months, P < .001). In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of improved survival for regional GAC include chemotherapy (HR .629, P < .001) and radiation (HR .603, P < .001). Conclusions: Patients with regional adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or stomach, but not those with localized disease, derive a statistically significant survival benefit from the addition of chemotherapy and radiation to surgical resection.
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