Distributions of brominated organic compounds in the troposphere and lower stratosphere

S. M. Schauffler, Elliot L Atlas, D. R. Blake, F. Flocke, R. A. Lueb, J. M. Lee-Taylor, V. Stroud, W. Travnicek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

135 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A comprehensive suite of brominated organic compounds was measured from whole air samples collected during the 1996 NASA Stratospheric Tracers of Atmospheric Transport aircraft campaign and the 1996 NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment Pacific Exploratory Mission-Tropics aircraft campaign. Measurements of individual species and total organic bromine were utilized to describe latitudinal and vertical distributions in the troposphere and lower stratosphere, fractional contributions to total organic bromine by individual species, fractional dissociation of the long-lived species relative to CFC-11, and the Ozone Depletion Potential of the halons and CH3Br. Spatial differences in the various organic brominated compounds were related to their respective sources and chemical lifetimes. The difference between tropospheric mixing ratios in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres for halons was approximately equivalent to their annual tropospheric growth rates, while the interhemispheric ratio of CH3Br was 1.18. The shorter-lived brominated organic species showed larger tropospheric mixing ratios in the tropics relative to midlatitudes, which may reflect marine biogenic sources. Significant vertical gradients in the troposphere were observed for the short-lived species with upper troposphere values 40-70% of the lower troposphere values. Much smaller vertical gradients (3-14%) were observed for CH3Br, and no significant vertical gradients were observed for the halons. Above the tropopause, the decrease in organic bromine compounds was found to have some seasonal and latitudinal differences. The combined losses of the individual compounds resulted in a loss of total organic bromine between the tropopause and 20 km of 38-40% in the tropics and 75-85% in midlatitudes. The fractional dissociation of the halons and CH3Br relative to CFC-11 showed latitudinal differences, with larger values in the tropics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1999JD900197
Pages (from-to)21513-21535
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans
Volume104
Issue numberD17
StatePublished - Sep 20 1999
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Bromochlorofluorocarbons
Tropics
Upper atmosphere
Troposphere
stratosphere
troposphere
organic compounds
tropical regions
Organic compounds
Bromine
organic compound
bromine
chlorofluorocarbons
Chlorofluorocarbons
tropopause
temperate regions
mixing ratios
gradients
CFC
Bromine Compounds

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Geophysics
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Oceanography

Cite this

Schauffler, S. M., Atlas, E. L., Blake, D. R., Flocke, F., Lueb, R. A., Lee-Taylor, J. M., ... Travnicek, W. (1999). Distributions of brominated organic compounds in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans, 104(D17), 21513-21535. [1999JD900197].

Distributions of brominated organic compounds in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. / Schauffler, S. M.; Atlas, Elliot L; Blake, D. R.; Flocke, F.; Lueb, R. A.; Lee-Taylor, J. M.; Stroud, V.; Travnicek, W.

In: Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans, Vol. 104, No. D17, 1999JD900197, 20.09.1999, p. 21513-21535.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Schauffler, SM, Atlas, EL, Blake, DR, Flocke, F, Lueb, RA, Lee-Taylor, JM, Stroud, V & Travnicek, W 1999, 'Distributions of brominated organic compounds in the troposphere and lower stratosphere', Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans, vol. 104, no. D17, 1999JD900197, pp. 21513-21535.
Schauffler SM, Atlas EL, Blake DR, Flocke F, Lueb RA, Lee-Taylor JM et al. Distributions of brominated organic compounds in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans. 1999 Sep 20;104(D17):21513-21535. 1999JD900197.
Schauffler, S. M. ; Atlas, Elliot L ; Blake, D. R. ; Flocke, F. ; Lueb, R. A. ; Lee-Taylor, J. M. ; Stroud, V. ; Travnicek, W. / Distributions of brominated organic compounds in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. In: Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans. 1999 ; Vol. 104, No. D17. pp. 21513-21535.
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abstract = "A comprehensive suite of brominated organic compounds was measured from whole air samples collected during the 1996 NASA Stratospheric Tracers of Atmospheric Transport aircraft campaign and the 1996 NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment Pacific Exploratory Mission-Tropics aircraft campaign. Measurements of individual species and total organic bromine were utilized to describe latitudinal and vertical distributions in the troposphere and lower stratosphere, fractional contributions to total organic bromine by individual species, fractional dissociation of the long-lived species relative to CFC-11, and the Ozone Depletion Potential of the halons and CH3Br. Spatial differences in the various organic brominated compounds were related to their respective sources and chemical lifetimes. The difference between tropospheric mixing ratios in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres for halons was approximately equivalent to their annual tropospheric growth rates, while the interhemispheric ratio of CH3Br was 1.18. The shorter-lived brominated organic species showed larger tropospheric mixing ratios in the tropics relative to midlatitudes, which may reflect marine biogenic sources. Significant vertical gradients in the troposphere were observed for the short-lived species with upper troposphere values 40-70{\%} of the lower troposphere values. Much smaller vertical gradients (3-14{\%}) were observed for CH3Br, and no significant vertical gradients were observed for the halons. Above the tropopause, the decrease in organic bromine compounds was found to have some seasonal and latitudinal differences. The combined losses of the individual compounds resulted in a loss of total organic bromine between the tropopause and 20 km of 38-40{\%} in the tropics and 75-85{\%} in midlatitudes. The fractional dissociation of the halons and CH3Br relative to CFC-11 showed latitudinal differences, with larger values in the tropics.",
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