Objective: To determine the distribution of semen parameters among adolescent and adult males presenting for fertility preservation. Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional cohort study of adolescent males age 11-19 who underwent semen analysis for fertility preservation at 3 centers in 2 countries with a comparison cohort of adult men presenting for fertility preservation. Prevalence of azoospermia and distribution of semen parameters was compared across groups. Results: A total of 197 adolescents and 95 adults underwent semen analysis for fertility preservation. Azoospermia was present in 17 (8.6%) adolescents and 3 (3.2%) adults. There was decline in the prevalence of azoospermia with increasing age. After exclusion of patients with azoospermia, the adolescent and adult cohorts were comprised of 180 and 92 patients, respectively. Median age at presentation among adolescents vs adults was 16.5years (interquartile range [IQR] 15.2-17.6) and 30.8years (IQR 22.7-43.8), respectively. Median semen volume was 1.0mL (IQR 0.5-2.0) vs 2.5mL (IQR 1.5-3.5), P <.001. Median sperm concentration was 30million/mL (IQR 10-57) vs 39million/mL (IQR 14-57), P =.2. Median sperm motility was 39% (IQR 20-55) vs 45% (IQR 35-55), P =.01. Median total motile sperm count was 11million (IQR 1.4-33) for adolescents vs 29million (IQR 13-69) for adults, P <.001. Conclusion: Young adolescent males had higher prevalence of azoospermia and lower semen parameters compared to adults. In conjunction with physical examination, Tanner stage, and specific clinical context, these data can help to inform patients and their families about potential for fertility preservation, even in very young adolescent patients.
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