Disaster Reanimatology Potentials

A Structured Interview Study in Armenia. III. Results, Conclusions, and Recommendations

Ernesto Pretto, Edmund Ricci, Miroslav Klain, Peter Safar, Victor Semenov, Joel Abrams, Samuel Tisherman, David Crippen, Louise Comfort

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

37 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

National medical responses to catastrophic disasters have failed to incorporate a resuscitation component. Purpose: This study sought to determine the lifesaving potentials of modern resuscitation medicine as applied to a catastrophic disaster situation. Previous articles reported the preliminary results (I), and methodology (II) of a structured, retrospective interview study of the 1988 earthquake in Armenia. The present article (III) reports and discusses the definitive findings, formulates conclusions, and puts forth recommendations for future responses to catastrophic disasters anywhere in the world. Results: Observations include: 1) The lack of adequate construction materials and procedures in the Armenian region contributed significantly to injury and loss of life; 2) The uninjured, lay population together with medical teams including physicians in Armenia were capable of rapid response (within two hours); 3) Due to a lack of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) training for medical teams and of basic first-aid training of the lay public, and scarcity of supplies and equipment for extrication of casualties, they were unable to do much at the scene. As a result, an undetermined number of severely injured earthquake victims in Armenia died slowly without the benefit of appropriate and feasible resuscitation attempts. Recommendations: 1) Widespread adoption of seismic-resistant building codes for regions of high seismic risk; 2) The lay public living in these regions should be trained in life-supporting first-aid (LSFA) and basic rescue techniques; 3) Community-wide emergency medical services (EMS) systems should be developed world-wild (tailored to the emergency needs of each region) with ATLS capability for field resuscitation; 4) Such systems be prepared to extend coverage to mass casualties; 5) National disaster medical system (NDMS) plans should provide integation of existing trauma-EMS systems into regional systems linked with advanced (heavy) rescue (public works, fire, police); and 6) New techniques and devices for victim extrication should be developed to enable rapid extrication of earthquake casualties within 24 hours.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)327-337
Number of pages11
JournalPrehospital and Disaster Medicine
Volume7
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 1992
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Armenia
Disasters
Resuscitation
Earthquakes
Advanced Trauma Life Support Care
Interviews
First Aid
Emergency Medical Services
Rescue Work
Mass Casualty Incidents
Equipment and Supplies
Modern 1601-history
Wounds and Injuries
Police
Emergencies
Retrospective Studies
Physicians
Population

Keywords

  • disaster management
  • disaster medicine
  • disaster response
  • earthquake
  • emergency medical response
  • emergency medical services (EMS)
  • first aid
  • resuscitation
  • search and rescue

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency
  • Emergency Medicine

Cite this

Disaster Reanimatology Potentials : A Structured Interview Study in Armenia. III. Results, Conclusions, and Recommendations. / Pretto, Ernesto; Ricci, Edmund; Klain, Miroslav; Safar, Peter; Semenov, Victor; Abrams, Joel; Tisherman, Samuel; Crippen, David; Comfort, Louise.

In: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1992, p. 327-337.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pretto, E, Ricci, E, Klain, M, Safar, P, Semenov, V, Abrams, J, Tisherman, S, Crippen, D & Comfort, L 1992, 'Disaster Reanimatology Potentials: A Structured Interview Study in Armenia. III. Results, Conclusions, and Recommendations', Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 327-337. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X00039741
Pretto, Ernesto ; Ricci, Edmund ; Klain, Miroslav ; Safar, Peter ; Semenov, Victor ; Abrams, Joel ; Tisherman, Samuel ; Crippen, David ; Comfort, Louise. / Disaster Reanimatology Potentials : A Structured Interview Study in Armenia. III. Results, Conclusions, and Recommendations. In: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine. 1992 ; Vol. 7, No. 4. pp. 327-337.
@article{34bc6b01db1c4e03bf1239a66fee26d1,
title = "Disaster Reanimatology Potentials: A Structured Interview Study in Armenia. III. Results, Conclusions, and Recommendations",
abstract = "National medical responses to catastrophic disasters have failed to incorporate a resuscitation component. Purpose: This study sought to determine the lifesaving potentials of modern resuscitation medicine as applied to a catastrophic disaster situation. Previous articles reported the preliminary results (I), and methodology (II) of a structured, retrospective interview study of the 1988 earthquake in Armenia. The present article (III) reports and discusses the definitive findings, formulates conclusions, and puts forth recommendations for future responses to catastrophic disasters anywhere in the world. Results: Observations include: 1) The lack of adequate construction materials and procedures in the Armenian region contributed significantly to injury and loss of life; 2) The uninjured, lay population together with medical teams including physicians in Armenia were capable of rapid response (within two hours); 3) Due to a lack of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) training for medical teams and of basic first-aid training of the lay public, and scarcity of supplies and equipment for extrication of casualties, they were unable to do much at the scene. As a result, an undetermined number of severely injured earthquake victims in Armenia died slowly without the benefit of appropriate and feasible resuscitation attempts. Recommendations: 1) Widespread adoption of seismic-resistant building codes for regions of high seismic risk; 2) The lay public living in these regions should be trained in life-supporting first-aid (LSFA) and basic rescue techniques; 3) Community-wide emergency medical services (EMS) systems should be developed world-wild (tailored to the emergency needs of each region) with ATLS capability for field resuscitation; 4) Such systems be prepared to extend coverage to mass casualties; 5) National disaster medical system (NDMS) plans should provide integation of existing trauma-EMS systems into regional systems linked with advanced (heavy) rescue (public works, fire, police); and 6) New techniques and devices for victim extrication should be developed to enable rapid extrication of earthquake casualties within 24 hours.",
keywords = "disaster management, disaster medicine, disaster response, earthquake, emergency medical response, emergency medical services (EMS), first aid, resuscitation, search and rescue",
author = "Ernesto Pretto and Edmund Ricci and Miroslav Klain and Peter Safar and Victor Semenov and Joel Abrams and Samuel Tisherman and David Crippen and Louise Comfort",
year = "1992",
doi = "10.1017/S1049023X00039741",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "7",
pages = "327--337",
journal = "Prehospital and Disaster Medicine",
issn = "1049-023X",
publisher = "World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Disaster Reanimatology Potentials

T2 - A Structured Interview Study in Armenia. III. Results, Conclusions, and Recommendations

AU - Pretto, Ernesto

AU - Ricci, Edmund

AU - Klain, Miroslav

AU - Safar, Peter

AU - Semenov, Victor

AU - Abrams, Joel

AU - Tisherman, Samuel

AU - Crippen, David

AU - Comfort, Louise

PY - 1992

Y1 - 1992

N2 - National medical responses to catastrophic disasters have failed to incorporate a resuscitation component. Purpose: This study sought to determine the lifesaving potentials of modern resuscitation medicine as applied to a catastrophic disaster situation. Previous articles reported the preliminary results (I), and methodology (II) of a structured, retrospective interview study of the 1988 earthquake in Armenia. The present article (III) reports and discusses the definitive findings, formulates conclusions, and puts forth recommendations for future responses to catastrophic disasters anywhere in the world. Results: Observations include: 1) The lack of adequate construction materials and procedures in the Armenian region contributed significantly to injury and loss of life; 2) The uninjured, lay population together with medical teams including physicians in Armenia were capable of rapid response (within two hours); 3) Due to a lack of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) training for medical teams and of basic first-aid training of the lay public, and scarcity of supplies and equipment for extrication of casualties, they were unable to do much at the scene. As a result, an undetermined number of severely injured earthquake victims in Armenia died slowly without the benefit of appropriate and feasible resuscitation attempts. Recommendations: 1) Widespread adoption of seismic-resistant building codes for regions of high seismic risk; 2) The lay public living in these regions should be trained in life-supporting first-aid (LSFA) and basic rescue techniques; 3) Community-wide emergency medical services (EMS) systems should be developed world-wild (tailored to the emergency needs of each region) with ATLS capability for field resuscitation; 4) Such systems be prepared to extend coverage to mass casualties; 5) National disaster medical system (NDMS) plans should provide integation of existing trauma-EMS systems into regional systems linked with advanced (heavy) rescue (public works, fire, police); and 6) New techniques and devices for victim extrication should be developed to enable rapid extrication of earthquake casualties within 24 hours.

AB - National medical responses to catastrophic disasters have failed to incorporate a resuscitation component. Purpose: This study sought to determine the lifesaving potentials of modern resuscitation medicine as applied to a catastrophic disaster situation. Previous articles reported the preliminary results (I), and methodology (II) of a structured, retrospective interview study of the 1988 earthquake in Armenia. The present article (III) reports and discusses the definitive findings, formulates conclusions, and puts forth recommendations for future responses to catastrophic disasters anywhere in the world. Results: Observations include: 1) The lack of adequate construction materials and procedures in the Armenian region contributed significantly to injury and loss of life; 2) The uninjured, lay population together with medical teams including physicians in Armenia were capable of rapid response (within two hours); 3) Due to a lack of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) training for medical teams and of basic first-aid training of the lay public, and scarcity of supplies and equipment for extrication of casualties, they were unable to do much at the scene. As a result, an undetermined number of severely injured earthquake victims in Armenia died slowly without the benefit of appropriate and feasible resuscitation attempts. Recommendations: 1) Widespread adoption of seismic-resistant building codes for regions of high seismic risk; 2) The lay public living in these regions should be trained in life-supporting first-aid (LSFA) and basic rescue techniques; 3) Community-wide emergency medical services (EMS) systems should be developed world-wild (tailored to the emergency needs of each region) with ATLS capability for field resuscitation; 4) Such systems be prepared to extend coverage to mass casualties; 5) National disaster medical system (NDMS) plans should provide integation of existing trauma-EMS systems into regional systems linked with advanced (heavy) rescue (public works, fire, police); and 6) New techniques and devices for victim extrication should be developed to enable rapid extrication of earthquake casualties within 24 hours.

KW - disaster management

KW - disaster medicine

KW - disaster response

KW - earthquake

KW - emergency medical response

KW - emergency medical services (EMS)

KW - first aid

KW - resuscitation

KW - search and rescue

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84971781835&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84971781835&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1017/S1049023X00039741

DO - 10.1017/S1049023X00039741

M3 - Article

VL - 7

SP - 327

EP - 337

JO - Prehospital and Disaster Medicine

JF - Prehospital and Disaster Medicine

SN - 1049-023X

IS - 4

ER -