Purpose: The prognosis for gastric carcinoma (GC) remains challenging with less than 35% of patients surviving 5 years. GC survival varies greatly by anatomical site, cardia and non-cardia. However, these important differences have not been thoroughly studied in relation to the increasing diversity in US populations such as Florida. In this study we examined, for the first time, the effect of race-ethnicity on risk of death from GC controlling for potential risk factors separately for cardia and non-cardia GCs. Methods: Data on GCs diagnosed in Florida from 2005–2016 were obtained from the statewide cancer registry. Age-standardized GC-specific 5-year survival was computed by anatomical site and race-ethnicity. In addition, a competing risk analysis was performed to assess prognostic factors and to estimate subdistribution hazard ratios of death from GC. Results: Whites had high proportions of cardia GC (43.9%) compared to all racial/ethnic minorities (10.9%, 19.6%, and 13.8% in Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians, respectively; p <.0001). Among 12,302 cases included, there were 7534 deaths from GC and 1179 from other causes. Age standardized GC-specific 5-year survival was significantly lower for Whites (28.0%) compared to Blacks (31.6%), Hispanics (37.6%), and Asians, (39.6%) and significantly lower for cardia GC (25.0%, 95% CI 23.4–26.6) compared to non-cardia GC (37.0%, 95% CI 35.5–38.4). Multivariable competing risk analysis in patients with non-cardia GC showed that Asians (sHR: 0.64, 95% CI 0.51–0.80), Hispanics (sHR 0.71, 95% CI 0.64–0.78), and Blacks (sHR 0.83, 95% CI 0.75–0.92) all had lower risks of death from GC compared to Whites. In patients with cardia GC, only Hispanics had statistically significant lower risk of death from GC than Whites (sHR 0.84, 95% CI 0.74–0.95, p = 0.005). Conclusions: The study of racial/ethnic survival disparities in patients with GC in Florida reveals Whites as the most disadvantaged group. Whites are more afflicted by cardia GC, which is associated with higher risk of death than non-cardia GC. However, even within non-cardia GC, Whites had higher risk of death than the other racial-ethnic groups. Commonly assessed survival determinants do not adequately explain these unusual disparities; thus, further investigation is warranted.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research