Directive and nondirective social support in diabetes management

Edwin B. Fisher, Annette M. La Greca, Peggy Greco, Cynthia Arfken, Neil Schneiderman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

60 Scopus citations


Directive and Nondirective Support were distinguished (interrater agreement = 88.2%) through open-ended interviews completed by 60 adults with Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Supporting validity, the sum of both Directive and Nondirective Support was correlated with scores on the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL;r=.36). Supporting their distinction, Directive and Nondirective Support were inversely correlated (r=26), and Directive but not Nondirective Support decreased with age. Partial correlations controlled for general support, as measured by the ISEL, to examine the unique associations of Directive and Nondirective Support. For those less than 30 years old, Nondirective Support was associated with better metabolic control (p = .004). For those 30 or older, Directive Support appeared counterproductive, being associated with greater negative mood (p = .02). Different types of support may play different roles in different areas of disease management (e.g., metabolic control versus mood) and as a function of individual characteristics such as age.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)131-144
Number of pages14
JournalInternational journal of behavioral medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 1 1997


  • depression
  • diabetes
  • personal relation
  • social support

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychology(all)

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