Differential Detection of Encapsidated versus Unencapsidated Enterovirus RNA in Samples Containing Pancreatic Enzymes-Relevance for Diabetes Studies

Maarit Oikarinen, Lori Bertolet, Antonio Toniolo, Sami Oikarinen, Jutta E. Laiho, Alberto Pugliese, Richard E. Lloyd, Heikki Hyöty, nPOD-V Study Group The nPOD-V Study Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Using immunohistochemistry, enterovirus capsid proteins were demonstrated in pancreatic islets of patients with type 1 diabetes. Virus proteins are mainly located in beta cells, supporting the hypothesis that enterovirus infections may contribute to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. In samples of pancreatic tissue, enterovirus RNA was also detected, but in extremely small quantities and in a smaller proportion of cases compared to the enteroviral protein. Difficulties in detecting viral RNA could be due to the very small number of infected cells, the possible activity of PCR inhibitors, and the presence-during persistent infection-of the viral genome in unencapsidated forms. The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to examine if enzymes or other compounds in pancreatic tissue could affect the molecular detection of encapsidated vs. unencapsidated enterovirus forms, and (b) to compare the sensitivity of RT-PCR methods used in different laboratories. Dilutions of encapsidated and unencapsidated virus were spiked into human pancreas homogenate and analyzed by RT-PCR. Incubation of pancreatic homogenate on wet ice for 20 h did not influence the detection of encapsidated virus. In contrast, a 15-min incubation on wet ice dramatically reduced detection of unencapsidated forms of virus. PCR inhibitors could not be found in pancreatic extract. The results show that components in the pancreas homogenate may selectively affect the detection of unencapsidated forms of enterovirus. This may lead to difficulties in diagnosing persisting enterovirus infection in the pancreas of patients with type 1 diabetes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalViruses
Volume12
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 11 2020

Keywords

  • enterovirus
  • pancreas
  • RT-PCR
  • type 1 diabetes
  • virus detection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology

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  • Cite this

    Oikarinen, M., Bertolet, L., Toniolo, A., Oikarinen, S., Laiho, J. E., Pugliese, A., Lloyd, R. E., Hyöty, H., & The nPOD-V Study Group, NPOD-V. S. G. (2020). Differential Detection of Encapsidated versus Unencapsidated Enterovirus RNA in Samples Containing Pancreatic Enzymes-Relevance for Diabetes Studies. Viruses, 12(7). https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070747