Diagnostic tests in dry eye

Amy Kloosterboer, Harrison Isaac Dermer, Anat Galor

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Introduction: Dry Eye (DE) is a multifactorial condition with a variable clinical presentation. This highly prevalent disease has multiple symptoms and signs that often do not correlate with one another. As such, the diagnosis of DE can be challenging to make, and a systematic approach must be taken. Areas covered: We review the different methods commonly utilized to evaluate a patient complaining of DE symptoms. Included in this review are clinical examination techniques, point of care tests, and imaging techniques. Expert opinion: DE is an umbrella term that encompasses different etiologies and pathophysiological mechanisms. The current definition recognizes tear instability, high osmolarity, inflammation, and neuro-sensory dysfunction as causative entities. The approach to DE begins with a systematic assessment of symptoms and signs, evaluating for both nociceptive and neuropathic sources of symptoms. Future research is needed to develop tests that assess neurosensory status in DE and couple point of care tests with therapeutic algorithms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)237-246
Number of pages10
JournalExpert Review of Ophthalmology
Issue number4-5
StatePublished - Sep 3 2019


  • Aqueous tear deficiency
  • corneal imaging techniques
  • corneal stains
  • dry eye
  • evaporative deficiency
  • inflammatory biomarkers
  • meibomian gland dysfunction
  • neuropathic
  • nociceptive
  • point of care tests

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Ophthalmology
  • Optometry


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