Purpose: To evaluate the performance of 3-dimensional (3D) endothelium/Descemet membrane complex thickness (En/DMT) maps vs total corneal thickness (TCT) maps in the diagnosis of active corneal graft rejection. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Eighty-one eyes (32 clear grafts and 17 with active rejection, along with 32 age-matched control eyes) were imaged using high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT), and a custom-built segmentation algorithm was used to generate 3D color-coded maps of TCT and En/DMT of the central 6-mm cornea. Regional En/DMT and TCT were analyzed and compared between the studied groups. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the accuracy of En/DMT and TCT maps in differentiating between studied groups. Main outcome measures were regional En/DMT and TCT. Results: Both regional TCT and En/DMT were significantly greater in actively rejecting grafts compared to both healthy corneas and clear grafts (P < .001). Using 3D thickness maps, central, paracentral, and peripheral En/DMT achieved 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity in diagnosing actively rejecting grafts (optimal cut-off value [OCV] of 19 μm, 24 μm, and 26 μm, respectively), vs only 82% sensitivity and 96% specificity for central TCT, OCV of 587 μm. Moreover, central, paracentral, and peripheral En/DMT correlated significantly with graft rejection severity (r = 0.972, r = 0.729, and r = 0.823, respectively; P < .001). Conclusion: 3D En/DMT maps can diagnose active corneal graft rejection with excellent accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. Future longitudinal studies are required to evaluate the predictive and prognostic role of 3D En/DMT maps in corneal graft rejection.
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