Histologically undetermined early acral melanoma in situ (HUAMIS) is rare but a diagnostic challenge, being clinically and dermoscopically MIS (late onset, a large size (>7 mm), parallel ridges pattern) but microscopically without recognizable cytological atypia. Cyclin D1 (CCND1) gene amplification is a genetic aberration occurring in the early radial growth phase of AMs and could thus help determine malignancy for this disease. We determine the value of CCND1 amplification by FISH as a diagnostic marker for HUAMIS. CCND1 amplification was examined in paraffin-embedded skin biopsies and excisions using a dual-probes fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) (11q13 and CEP11). One FISH-negative case 6 was additionally examined by Mypath Melanoma (qRT-PCR). Seventeen cases (12 dysplastic nevi, 3 AMIS, and 2 invasive AM) were served as negative controls for FISH. All six patients (4 females and 2 males) were Hispanic. Pigment lesions were on the left plantar foot (4), right third finger palm (1), and right thumb subungual (1). All cases showed similar clinical and dermoscopical characteristics, including late onset (50 to 74 years old), long duration (from 2 to 15 years), large-sized pigments (from 16 to 40 mm), and a parallel ridge pattern. Junctional melanocytes with no or minimal atypia from five cases showed CCND1 amplifications. Four of 5 cases were received 1st or/and 2nd wide excisions, which demonstrated foci of histologically overt MIS. One FISH-negative case 6 demonstrated “likely malignancy” scores (>2) by Mypath Melanoma (qRT-PCR). None of negative controls showed the amplification. We propose here a simple CCND1 FISH is a practical diagnostic test to determine the malignancy of the very early progression phase of AM preceding histopathologically defined MIS. Cases presented here could be an indolent subtype of AMIS characterized by carrying a long latent radial growth phase without vertical growth, mimicking lentigo maligna.
- Cyclin D1 amplification
- Fluorescence in situ hybridization
- Histologically undetermined acral melanoma in situ
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine