Diagnostic accuracy of a two-stage model for detecting obstructive sleep apnoea in chronic tetraplegia

Marnie Graco, Rachel Schembri, Susan Cross, Chinnaya Thiyagarajan, Shirin Shafazand, Najib T. Ayas, Mark S Nash, Viet H. Vu, Warren R. Ruehland, Ching Li Chai-Coetzer, Peter Rochford, Thomas Churchward, Sally E. Green, David J. Berlowitz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is highly prevalent in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold-standard diagnostic test for OSA, however PSG is expensive and frequently inaccessible, especially in SCI. A two-stage model, incorporating a questionnaire followed by oximetry, has been found to accurately detect moderate to severe OSA (MS-OSA) in a non-disabled primary care population. This study investigated the accuracy of the two-stage model in chronic tetraplegia using both the original model and a modified version for tetraplegia. Methods: An existing data set of 78 people with tetraplegia was used to modify the original two-stage model. Multivariable analysis identified significant risk factors for inclusion in a new tetraplegia-specific questionnaire. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses of the questionnaires and oximetry established thresholds for diagnosing MS-OSA. The accuracy of both models in diagnosing MS-OSA was prospectively evaluated in 100 participants with chronic tetraplegia across four international SCI units. Results: Injury completeness, sleepiness, self-reported snoring and apnoeas were included in the modified questionnaire, which was highly predictive of MS-OSA (ROC area under the curve 0.87 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.95)). The 3% oxygen desaturation index was also highly predictive (0.93 (0.87-0.98)). The two-stage model with modified questionnaire had a sensitivity and specificity of 83% (66-93) and 88% (75-94) in the development group, and 77% (65-87) and 81% (68-90) in the validation group. Similar results were demonstrated with the original model. Conclusion: Implementation of this simple alternative to full PSG could substantially increase the detection of OSA in patients with tetraplegia and improve access to treatments. Trial registration number: Results, ACTRN12615000896572 (The Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry) and pre-results, NCT02176928 (clinicaltrials.gov).

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalThorax
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - May 7 2018

Fingerprint

Quadriplegia
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Polysomnography
Spinal Cord Injuries
Oximetry
ROC Curve
Snoring
Apnea
New Zealand
Routine Diagnostic Tests
Gold
Area Under Curve
Registries
Primary Health Care
Surveys and Questionnaires
Clinical Trials
Oxygen
Sensitivity and Specificity
Wounds and Injuries
Population

Keywords

  • clinical epidemiology
  • respiratory measurement
  • sleep apnoea

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Cite this

Graco, M., Schembri, R., Cross, S., Thiyagarajan, C., Shafazand, S., Ayas, N. T., ... Berlowitz, D. J. (Accepted/In press). Diagnostic accuracy of a two-stage model for detecting obstructive sleep apnoea in chronic tetraplegia. Thorax. https://doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2017-211131

Diagnostic accuracy of a two-stage model for detecting obstructive sleep apnoea in chronic tetraplegia. / Graco, Marnie; Schembri, Rachel; Cross, Susan; Thiyagarajan, Chinnaya; Shafazand, Shirin; Ayas, Najib T.; Nash, Mark S; Vu, Viet H.; Ruehland, Warren R.; Chai-Coetzer, Ching Li; Rochford, Peter; Churchward, Thomas; Green, Sally E.; Berlowitz, David J.

In: Thorax, 07.05.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Graco, M, Schembri, R, Cross, S, Thiyagarajan, C, Shafazand, S, Ayas, NT, Nash, MS, Vu, VH, Ruehland, WR, Chai-Coetzer, CL, Rochford, P, Churchward, T, Green, SE & Berlowitz, DJ 2018, 'Diagnostic accuracy of a two-stage model for detecting obstructive sleep apnoea in chronic tetraplegia', Thorax. https://doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2017-211131
Graco, Marnie ; Schembri, Rachel ; Cross, Susan ; Thiyagarajan, Chinnaya ; Shafazand, Shirin ; Ayas, Najib T. ; Nash, Mark S ; Vu, Viet H. ; Ruehland, Warren R. ; Chai-Coetzer, Ching Li ; Rochford, Peter ; Churchward, Thomas ; Green, Sally E. ; Berlowitz, David J. / Diagnostic accuracy of a two-stage model for detecting obstructive sleep apnoea in chronic tetraplegia. In: Thorax. 2018.
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AU - Schembri, Rachel

AU - Cross, Susan

AU - Thiyagarajan, Chinnaya

AU - Shafazand, Shirin

AU - Ayas, Najib T.

AU - Nash, Mark S

AU - Vu, Viet H.

AU - Ruehland, Warren R.

AU - Chai-Coetzer, Ching Li

AU - Rochford, Peter

AU - Churchward, Thomas

AU - Green, Sally E.

AU - Berlowitz, David J.

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N2 - Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is highly prevalent in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold-standard diagnostic test for OSA, however PSG is expensive and frequently inaccessible, especially in SCI. A two-stage model, incorporating a questionnaire followed by oximetry, has been found to accurately detect moderate to severe OSA (MS-OSA) in a non-disabled primary care population. This study investigated the accuracy of the two-stage model in chronic tetraplegia using both the original model and a modified version for tetraplegia. Methods: An existing data set of 78 people with tetraplegia was used to modify the original two-stage model. Multivariable analysis identified significant risk factors for inclusion in a new tetraplegia-specific questionnaire. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses of the questionnaires and oximetry established thresholds for diagnosing MS-OSA. The accuracy of both models in diagnosing MS-OSA was prospectively evaluated in 100 participants with chronic tetraplegia across four international SCI units. Results: Injury completeness, sleepiness, self-reported snoring and apnoeas were included in the modified questionnaire, which was highly predictive of MS-OSA (ROC area under the curve 0.87 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.95)). The 3% oxygen desaturation index was also highly predictive (0.93 (0.87-0.98)). The two-stage model with modified questionnaire had a sensitivity and specificity of 83% (66-93) and 88% (75-94) in the development group, and 77% (65-87) and 81% (68-90) in the validation group. Similar results were demonstrated with the original model. Conclusion: Implementation of this simple alternative to full PSG could substantially increase the detection of OSA in patients with tetraplegia and improve access to treatments. Trial registration number: Results, ACTRN12615000896572 (The Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry) and pre-results, NCT02176928 (clinicaltrials.gov).

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