Development of aquaculture methods for southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma: II. Nursery and grow-out

Daniel D. Benetti, Andrew J. Leingang, Riccardo Russo, Tina M. Powell, Dennis Cleary, Scott W. Grabe, Michael W. Feeley, Owen M. Stevens, Kevan L. Main

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Nursery and growout trials of hatchery-raised southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma, were conducted in tanks and raceways using recirculating systems. Three-month-old juveniles were stocked at 0.5/L in 800-L round tanks and raised in sea water for three months before being acclimated to freshwater and transferred to a 24-ton raceway, where they remained until they were 14 months old. Fish were exposed to salinities ranging from 0-32 ppt and temperature ranging from 17-30°C. Southern flounder grew to an average 169 g (±68.92 SD) and 25.06 cm (±4.30 SD) in 420 days (14 months after hatching). Growth rates of 3- to 14-month-old southern flounder in this experimental trial are expressed by the exponential equation y = 0.0773 e0.0188x (r2 = 0.77). Overall feed conversion ratio was 0.79. Survival rate of 22.5% was achieved during the nursery and grow-out trials. Mortality occurred mainly due to the outbreak of diseases such as ectoparasitic infestations of the copepod Argulus sp. and the dinoflagellate Amyloodinium ocellatus. A large number of slow-growing, stunted fish suggests that early selection of the fast-growing fish belonging to the large size class for grow-out is currently the best alternative for the successful culture of this species.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)135-146
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Applied Aquaculture
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - 2001


  • Growth
  • Paralichthys lethostigma
  • Recirculating system
  • Southern flounder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aquatic Science
  • Ecology


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