Development of, and initial validity evidence for, the referee self-efficacy scale: A multistudy report

Nicholas D. Myers, Deborah L. Feltz, Félix Guillén, Lori Dithurbide

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


The purpose of this multistudy report was to develop, and then to provide initial validity evidence for measures derived from, the Referee Self-Efficacy Scale. Data were collected from referees (N = 1609) in the United States (n = 978) and Spain (n = 631). In Study 1 (n = 512), a single-group exploratory structural equation model provided evidence for four factors: game knowledge, decision making, pressure, and communication. In Study 2 (n = 1153), multiple-group confirmatory factor analytic models provided evidence for partial factorial invariance by country, level of competition, team gender, and sport refereed. In Study 3 (n = 456), potential sources of referee self-efficacy information combined to account for a moderate or large amount of variance in each dimension of referee selfefficacy with years of referee experience, highest level refereed, physical/mental preparation, and environmental comfort, each exerting at least two statistically significant direct effects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)737-765
Number of pages29
JournalJournal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jan 1 2012


  • Exploratory structural equation modeling
  • Sources of sport confidence
  • Sport refereed
  • Sports officials
  • Target rotation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology


Dive into the research topics of 'Development of, and initial validity evidence for, the referee self-efficacy scale: A multistudy report'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this