This study reports an objective criterion for the real-time extended-range prediction of monsoon onset over Kerala (MOK), using circulation as well as rainfall information from the 16 May initial conditions of the Grand Ensemble Prediction System based on the coupled model CFSv2. Three indices are defined, one from rainfall measured over Kerala and the others based on the strength and depth of the low-level westerly jet over the Arabian Sea. While formulating the criterion, the persistence of both rainfall and low-level wind after theMOKdate has been considered to avoid the occurrence of "bogus onsets" that are unrelated to the large-scale monsoon system. It is found that the predicted MOKdate matches well with the MOKdate declared by the India Meteorological Department, the authorized principal weather forecasting agency under the government of India, for the period 2001-14. The proposed criterion successfully avoids predicting bogus onsets, which is a major challenge in the prediction of MOK. Furthermore, the evolution of various model-predicted large-scale and local meteorological parameters corresponding to the predicted MOK date is in good agreement with that of the observation, suggesting the robustness of the devised criterion and the suitability of CFSv2 model for MOK prediction. However, it should be noted that the criterion proposed in the present study can be used only in the dynamical prediction framework, as it necessitates input data on the future evolution of rainfall and low-level wind.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atmospheric Science