Although the pain physician is most familiar with the treatment of the opiate withdrawal syndrome, other drugs are abused by the chronic pain patient. The pain physician should then be familiar with the withdrawal syndromes associated with other drug groups. The withdrawal syndromes associated with hypnosedatives, psychotomimetics, nicotine, stimulants, ergot alkaloids, beta adrenergic blocking agents, antidepressants, muscle relaxants, and alpha-adrenergic agonists are described. Drug detoxification protocols for these drugs are reviewed. Additionally, the rationale for clonidine opiate detoxification is discussed, and current clonidine detoxification protocols are reviewed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine