Background Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) remains a vital therapy for children requiring cardiopulmonary support. Methods The Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) was analyzed for ECMO (ICD-9-CM 39.65) patients between 1997 and 2009. Results Overall, 8005 cases were identified, consisting of neonatal (ECMO < 30 days of life; 33%), infant (30 days to 1 year; 46%), young child (1 year to 5 years; 9.7%), and older child (> 5 years; 11%) groups. Patients were most commonly male (56%), Caucasian (49%), and insured by Medicaid (46%). ECMO was indicated for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS; 33%), cardiac and circulatory congenital anomalies (CCCA; 22%), congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH; 13%), and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN; 10%). On multivariate analysis, length of stay (LOS) decreased over the study period, while total charges (TC) increased over time, p < 0.001. Survival was higher for boys and those treated in large or urban teaching hospitals, p < 0.05. ECMO for CDH, CCCA, and RDS had the highest associated mortality, p < 0.001. Neonatal and infant ECMO had no difference in mortality vs. older children. Conclusions While LOS for ECMO has decreased over time, TC has increased steadily. Improved survival is found in boys and patients at large or urban teaching hospitals. CDH, CCCA, and RDS portend poor survival outcomes as indicators for ECMO.
- Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
- Health resources
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health