Detecting Depression in People Living with HIV in South Africa: The Factor Structure and Convergent Validity of the South African Depression Scale (SADS)

L. S. Andersen, J. A. Joska, J. F. Magidson, C. O’Cleirigh, J. S. Lee, A. Kagee, J. A. Witten, S. A. Safren

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Screening measures for depression developed in high-income countries have not always demonstrated strong psychometric properties in South Africa and with people living with HIV (PLWH). The present study explored the psychometric properties of the 16-item South African Depression Scale (SADS) comprised of idioms of distress specific to isiXhosa culture in PLWH. The SADS was administered to 137 Xhosa-speaking PLWH who met diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) together with the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). We conducted exploratory factor analysis, correlation, and reliability statistics. Four factors of the SADS emerged: Sadness, lethargy/burdened, anhedonia/withdrawal, and cognitive/somatic. All factors correlated significantly with the HAM-D and CES-D. Internal consistency of the overall measure was high (α =.89). The SADS promises to be a robust measure of depression in isiXhosa-speaking PLWH in South Africa likely due to the inclusion of local idioms of distress.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAIDS and Behavior
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2020

Keywords

  • Depression
  • HIV
  • Measure
  • Psychometric properties
  • South africa

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases

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