Depressed withdrawn and intrusive mothers’ effects on their fetuses and neonates

Tiffany Field, Miguel A. Diego, John Dieter, Maria Hernandez-Reif, Saul Schanberg, Cynthia Kuhn, Regina Yando, Debra Bendell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

60 Scopus citations


Depressed mothers who could be classified as withdrawn or intrusive were compared with nondepressed mothers on their prenatal cortisol and catecholamine levels and on fetal activity and neonatal outcome variables. The data suggested that the withdrawn mothers had lower dopamine levels during pregnancy, and their infants had lower Brazelton scale scores. The infants of withdrawn mothers also had the highest cortisol levels and the lowest dopamine and serotonin levels as well as the most asymmetrical EEG patterns.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)27-39
Number of pages13
JournalInfant Behavior and Development
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2001

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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