Delineation of wellhead protection areas containing seepage lakes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The conventional method of delineating wellhead protection areas using travel times is not well suited for application in wellfields containing seepage lakes. The concentration factor is identified as an intrinsic vulnerability measure that does not have the shortcomings of travel time, and the theory of concentration factors is presented. Idealized scenarios are used to demonstrate the features of using concentration factors. It is shown that using travel times in the presence of seepage lakes can indicate an increased well vulnerability, when in fact there is a reduced vulnerability. It is further demonstrated that in wellfields without seepage lakes, travel times do not give a consistent measure of vulnerability, and concentration factors are a preferred measure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number04017098
JournalJournal of Water Resources Planning and Management
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2018


  • Concentration factors
  • Groundwater
  • Seepage lakes
  • Travel times
  • Wellhead protection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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