Background: Clostridium difficile, a major cause of nosocomial and antibiotic-associated diarrhea, carries a significant disease and cost burden. This study aimed to select an optimal formulation and schedule for a candidate toxoid vaccine against C. difficile toxins A and B. Methods: Randomized, placebo-controlled, two-stage, Phase 2 study in a total of 661 adults aged 40-75 years. Stage I: low (50 μg antigen) or high (100 μg antigen) dose with or without aluminum hydroxide (AlOH) adjuvant, or placebo, administered on Days 0-7-30. Stage II: Days 0-7-30, 0-7-180, and 0-30-180, using the formulation selected in Stage I through a decision tree defined a priori and based principally on a bootstrap ranking approach. Administration was intramuscular. Blood samples were obtained on Days 0, 7, 14, 30, 60 (Stage I and II), 180, and 210 (Stage II); IgG to toxins A and B was measured by ELISA and in vitro functional activity was measured by toxin neutralizing assay (TNA). Safety data were collected using diary cards. Results: In Stage I the composite immune response against toxins A and B (percentage of participants who seroconverted for both toxins) was highest in the high dose + adjuvant group (97% and 92% for Toxins A and B, respectively) and was chosen for Stage II. In Stage II the immune response profile for this formulation through Day 180 given on Days 0-7-30 ranked above the other two administration schedules. There were no safety issues. Conclusions: The high dose + adjuvant (100 μg antigen + AlOH) formulation administered at 0-7-30 days elicited the best immune response profile, including functional antibody responses, through Day 180 and was selected for use in subsequent clinical trials.
- Clostridium difficile
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Infectious Diseases