Defects in the biosynthesis of mitochondrial heme c and heme a in yeast and mammals

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Abstract

Defects in heme biosynthesis have been associated with a large number of diseases, but mostly recognized in porphyrias, which are neurovisceral or cutaneous disorders caused by the accumulation of biosynthetic intermediates. However, defects in the maturation of heme groups that are part of the oxidative phosphorylation system are now also recognized as important causes of disease. The electron transport chain contains heme groups of the types a, b and c, all of which are directly involved in electron transfer reactions. In this article, we review the effect of mutations in enzymes involved in the maturation of heme a (the prosthetic group of cytochrome c oxidase) and heme c (the prosthetic group of cytochrome c) both in yeast and in humans. COX10 and COX15 are two genes, initially identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that have been found to cause infantile cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in humans. They participate in the farnesylation and hydroxylation of heme b, steps that are necessary for the formation of heme a, the prosthetic group required for cytochrome oxidase assembly and activity. Deletion of the cytochrome c heme lyase gene in a single allele has also been associated with a human disease, known as Microphthalmia with Linear Skin defects (MLS) syndrome. The cytochrome c heme lyase is necessary to covalently attach the heme group to the apocytochrome c polypeptide. The production of mouse models recapitulating these diseases is providing novel information on the pathogenesis of clinical syndromes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)153-159
Number of pages7
JournalBiochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics
Volume1659
Issue number2-3
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 6 2004

Fingerprint

Mammals
Biosynthesis
Heme
Yeast
Yeasts
Defects
Electron Transport Complex IV
Prosthetics
Cytochrome-c Oxidase Deficiency
Genes
Cytochrome c Group
Prenylation
Porphyrias
Hydroxylation
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Electron Transport
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
heme a
Skin
Alleles

Keywords

  • Heme biosynthesis
  • Mammal
  • Yeast

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics

Cite this

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abstract = "Defects in heme biosynthesis have been associated with a large number of diseases, but mostly recognized in porphyrias, which are neurovisceral or cutaneous disorders caused by the accumulation of biosynthetic intermediates. However, defects in the maturation of heme groups that are part of the oxidative phosphorylation system are now also recognized as important causes of disease. The electron transport chain contains heme groups of the types a, b and c, all of which are directly involved in electron transfer reactions. In this article, we review the effect of mutations in enzymes involved in the maturation of heme a (the prosthetic group of cytochrome c oxidase) and heme c (the prosthetic group of cytochrome c) both in yeast and in humans. COX10 and COX15 are two genes, initially identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that have been found to cause infantile cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in humans. They participate in the farnesylation and hydroxylation of heme b, steps that are necessary for the formation of heme a, the prosthetic group required for cytochrome oxidase assembly and activity. Deletion of the cytochrome c heme lyase gene in a single allele has also been associated with a human disease, known as Microphthalmia with Linear Skin defects (MLS) syndrome. The cytochrome c heme lyase is necessary to covalently attach the heme group to the apocytochrome c polypeptide. The production of mouse models recapitulating these diseases is providing novel information on the pathogenesis of clinical syndromes.",
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N2 - Defects in heme biosynthesis have been associated with a large number of diseases, but mostly recognized in porphyrias, which are neurovisceral or cutaneous disorders caused by the accumulation of biosynthetic intermediates. However, defects in the maturation of heme groups that are part of the oxidative phosphorylation system are now also recognized as important causes of disease. The electron transport chain contains heme groups of the types a, b and c, all of which are directly involved in electron transfer reactions. In this article, we review the effect of mutations in enzymes involved in the maturation of heme a (the prosthetic group of cytochrome c oxidase) and heme c (the prosthetic group of cytochrome c) both in yeast and in humans. COX10 and COX15 are two genes, initially identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that have been found to cause infantile cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in humans. They participate in the farnesylation and hydroxylation of heme b, steps that are necessary for the formation of heme a, the prosthetic group required for cytochrome oxidase assembly and activity. Deletion of the cytochrome c heme lyase gene in a single allele has also been associated with a human disease, known as Microphthalmia with Linear Skin defects (MLS) syndrome. The cytochrome c heme lyase is necessary to covalently attach the heme group to the apocytochrome c polypeptide. The production of mouse models recapitulating these diseases is providing novel information on the pathogenesis of clinical syndromes.

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