Cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) expression is an independent predictor of prostate cancer recurrence

Brian L. Cohen, Pablo Gomez, Yohei Omori, Robert C. Duncan, Francisco Civantos, Mark S Soloway, Vinata B Lokeshwar, Bal L Lokeshwar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

65 Scopus citations


Lack of reliable prognostic markers hinders accurate prediction of disease progression in prostate cancer. The inducible proinflammatory enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is implicated in prostate carcinogenesis, but its role in cancer progression is less clear. We examined whether COX-2 expression evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens can predict biochemical recurrence. Archival prostate cancer specimens (n = 60) were obtained from patients who underwent RP, but had not received neoadjuvant hormonal therapy. Twenty-three patients had biochemical or clinical recurrence (mean time of recurrence: 38.2 months), and 37 patients were recurrence free (mean follow-up: 95 months). COX-2 expression was determined by IHC, using an anti-COX-2 antibody. Three individuals scored the staining independently, as high- or low-expression. COX-2 was expressed in prostate cancer cells, in adjacent normal glands and in specimens from patients who later progressed. At 62-months follow-up, COX-2 staining predicted progression with 82.4% sensitivity and 81.3% specificity. Sensitivity (86.4%) and specificity (86.7%) improved at ≥ 100-months follow-up. In univariate analysis, Gleason score, preoperative PSA, extraprostatic extension, margin, seminal vesicle invasion, and high COX-2 expression were significant predictors of biochemical recurrence (p < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, preoperative PSA (hazard ratio/unit PSA change 1.080; p = 0.0036) and COX-2 expression (hazard ratio 16.442; p < 0.0001) were independent prognostic indicators. Patients with PSA > 7 ng/ml and high COX-2 expression had the highest probability of recurrence (Kaplan-Meier analysis). COX-2 expression is an independent predictor of prostate cancer progression following RP and underscores the significance of inflammatory factors in this process.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1082-1087
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Cancer
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2006


  • Cancer progression
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Inflammation
  • Multivariate analysis
  • Prognostic indicators
  • PSA
  • Tumor markers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) expression is an independent predictor of prostate cancer recurrence'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this

    Cohen, B. L., Gomez, P., Omori, Y., Duncan, R. C., Civantos, F., Soloway, M. S., Lokeshwar, V. B., & Lokeshwar, B. L. (2006). Cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) expression is an independent predictor of prostate cancer recurrence. International Journal of Cancer, 119(5), 1082-1087.