Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major cause of liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Although less prevalent in the United States than in other areas of the world, HBV infection results in a significant disease burden in many American immigrant communities. Seven treatments are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic HBV infection: interferon-α (standard interferon-α2b or pegylated interferon-α2a), and the nucleos(t)ide analogues lamivudine, adefovir dipivoxil, entecavir, telbivudine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. There is preliminary evidence that the disease burden from HBV infection may be diminishing in the United States, reflecting not only HBV vaccine progress but also more than a decade of antiviral therapy.
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